Wp/tzm/Andrea del Verrocchio

< Wp‎ | tzm
Wp > tzm > Andrea del Verrocchio

Andrea del Verrocchio (attayen n. 1435 – 1488) ikka-t-nn iga yan "sculptor" awṭalyan, adhaybi d umekla. Tekka-tt-inn ɣur-s yat tsawert ilan azal ammas n Flurinsa, kkan-t-inn dinna gan kigan d imeklawen n tleslalit; ilin seg-sen inelmaden d yimeswurrin-nnes. Zun d Botticini, Ghirlandaio d Perugino, maca anelmad-nnes akkʷ ittwassnen Leonardo da Vinci ad t-igan.

Madonna d Urba, attayen n. 1470, tasawert n Verrocchio. New York, Asalay Aɣerman n Tẓuri.

Tudert-nnesEdit

Ilul-d Verrocchio g Flurinsa attayen n 1435. Ibba-s Michele di Francesco Cioni, iswurri s izwar amm yan umsenflul n uyajuṛ d uqermid, d "tax collector" ḍart-as. Iswurri ɣur tewja n id b yibankiwen Ayt Medici, fadd immutti ilemma s Vinisya.

Llig d-ilul Verrocchio, gan-as s yisem Andrea di Francesco di Cioni. Ittunfal yisem-nnes s Andrea del Verrocchio llig ibda ar ittelmad ɣur yan uhekkac (adhaybi) igan s yisem Verrocchio (d irwas is d nettan nit ayd igan Francesco di Luca Verrocchio, yan unesbaɣur imursen kigan g wussan-nnes). D amm yan ɣur-s ittelmaden, yagʷem-d ɣur-s Verrocchio man imek s tettyawskarent tzuzaf d yirukuten n wureɣ zun d iṭebsilen, iɣeṛṛafen d tqeṛɛay n tisent. Ilmed allu man imek s ssufuɣen g wureɣ; itsent tewriqin tusdidin mi ttinin "afriw n wureɣ" d usemres-nnsent g zzwaq n yisutay n tewlafin, isefrisen d "illuminated manuscripts". Ilmed allu man imek s sennulfun isefrisen n ubrunẓ. Asekkin-ad igguran a s bahra ittyawssan nettan.


Akud-ann, immaggar d Verrocchio netta d Donatello (ɣef uyenna ttalsen kra n medden ikka-t-inn s tidet da as-immal aha da t-isselmad, maca kra n wanẓa ɣef temsalt-a ur illi, iḥaseb John Pope-Hennessy awed netta tiẓri-a mas d ur d yad temsasa akked tmamekt-nnes n uswurri azemz-ann). Yaɣul Donatello iga yan seg "sculpteurs" akkʷ ttwassennin, yuti uyenna isgadda g yisefrisen ancet nna isker Verrocchio. Sin-ad, sgaddan s sin-itsen yan usefris i David ilan iɣef n Goliath, sgaddan allu s sin-itsen yan usefris axatar igan win imnayen i yan userdas ittwassnen azemz-ann. Kigan n tikkal dar sengiddin imussnawen n tẓuri d ar ssemzazalen ger sin id David, d ger sin yisefrisen-nna n userday amnay.

Verrocchio, ur jjin iwwel, maca ikka-t-inn da ittazzal meqqar; ɣef ayt tewja-nnes yaḍnin. Idrus mayd ittwssanen ɣef tudert-nnes, abla mas ikka da ittelmad ɣef ufus Fra Filippo Lippi akkʷ ayenna iqqnen ɣer teklut, d mas da ttuɣulent twuriwin-nnes tireslanin ɣer s yiseggʷasen-nnes simraw gguranin, d mli idd ur d takessa n Lorenzo de Medici d memmi-s Piero, ur inni ad izzigiz s mani. Ikka-t-inn yamu awed netta g "Guild" n St Luke (Luke Agʷrram), kkan-d tastudyut-nnes kigan g yinaẓuren ikeswaten. Tiwuriwin n yidsen g yinelmaden-ad-nnes amn Domenico Ghirlandaio, Francesco Botticelli d Pietro Perugino, immra ad ten-issengara yan d twuriwin n Verrocchio s yiɣef-nnes.

Tigiriwin n tudert-nnes, yujja Verrocchio i Lorenzo di Credi tasawert-ann-nnes n Flurinsa, irẓem d netta tayyaḍ ammas n Vinisya, mani illa da iswurri ɣef yan usefris i Bartolomeo Colleoni. Immut g Vinisya aseggʷas n 1488. Da ittwaḥsab Andrea mas iga yan seg yimezwura usriden n umessenti (entrepreneur) awṭalyan, Paul M. Verrochi.

TifelwinEdit

 
Addum n Umasiḥ, 1474-1475, Verrocchio d Leonardo da Vinci.
 
Amasiḥ d Thomas. Agʷrram, Orsanmichelle, Flurinsa.

Da ittuyanna mas ibda Verrocchio taklut g temrawant n 1460, tizi llig t-nn-ikka isul da iswuri ammas n Prato akked umekla Fra Filippo Lippi. Xas yat tfelwit ittwassnen ilan asinyatur sɣur Verrocchio ayd illan, ad t-igan d yat "altarpiece" (tafelwit nna ittilin ammas yisɣersen) n Madonna d Icirri, manen akked Igʷrramen g tkatidraliyt n Pistoia, ittwaklan tigira n temrawant n 1470. Sulent uggar n tfelwin-yaḍnin d-kkanin astudyu n Verrocchio, d irwas is dig-sen ikʷla Verrocchio yan umur, klun inelmaden-nnes imuren-nna-yaḍnin.

Tettwakla tfelwit akkʷ dig-sent ittwassnen, igan s uzwel Addum n Umasiḥ ger 1472 d 1475. Ibder Giorgio Vasari g warra-nnes "Tudert n Inaẓuren Ikeswaten"; mas d Leonardo da Vinci ayd ikʷlan aneglus illan ɣef uẓelmaḍ. Idum-aɣ allu Vasari mas d; allig as-iɣʷḍef Verrocchio i tmefkit n umeḥḍar-nnes bu mraw d tam yiseggʷasen nna iɣudan g teklut, isres akkʷ nettan taccitat-nnes s yat tkelit, aha ur jjun d nettan ad sul ikʷlan kra g tudert-nnes. Mek igger yan s yan usmaqqel nna ineɣden, qqad as-ittuman mas ittwakla umata g tfelwit-nna s yat "tempera" niɣ tamamekt nna iqburen, imil aneglus, kra n igezzumen g tfekka n Ɛisa d tmuɣli-nna n tɣʷrdin, tettwaklan s yat tatiqniyt nna igan tamaynut g teklut tazitiyt. Taɣawsa nna ittajjan imussnawen n umezruy n tẓuri ad ttinin d yiɣfawen-nnsen mas dig-sent ixdem Leonardo yan mennaw yigezzumen yaḍen d ur id ɣas yan yan. Ittufka diɣ yan usumer-yaḍen, ittinin mas d Botticelli ad as-ixedmen wis-sin ineglusen.

IsefrisenEdit

Isnulfa Verrochio snat tɣawsiwin g uẓru, yan utabut (cercueil) d yan usarid (lavabo). Da ittuyanna mas isrem allu yat Madonna d Icirri s low relief.

Ttwaskaren isefrisen n Verrocchio akkʷ ttwassnen s ubrunẓ nna igan yan wanaw g umɣuz (métal). Ukan, afadd isennuflu yan usefris n ubrunẓ, da ittaf ɣur Verrocchio ad t-ixdem s tkira (cire). Isker-as s izwar "plâtre" nnig-as ma s yakka yan "moule" ḍart mayd t-ittekkis, igger is-s g ufarnu issreɣ-as, yajj-t ard ifsi kull aha yaɣul iga (liquid). Issuga uynna n umɣuz ifsin g "mould" yajj-t ard ikrem s ttawil-nnes. Ḍart mayd ittekkis "plâtre", yaff-nn asefris-nnes n ubrunẓ hat yujad, ur da as-ittɣama abla "finition" d ujrak (polissage)


Tawuri g San LorenzoEdit

Tekka-tt-nn tga Teglizt n San Lorenzo (Lawrence Agʷrram) yat teglizt tamaynut g Flurinsa. Iṣkʷa-tt umesdag Brunelleschi s tmamekt n Tleslatit nna igan tamaynut g wanaw-nnes azemz-ann. Kkan-t-nn Ayt Medici gan imasayen-nnes akkʷ ɣur illa waddur, stan Verrocchio amm umsefres-nnsen nna rad ittwakellafen s kraḍ yisenfaren dig-s illan.

Isnulfa Verrocchio aseggʷas n 1465 yan usarid i tmeṣriyt-nna n San Lorenzo (nna mi ttinin dɣi "Old Sacristy"), g ttilin iheddumen d yirukuten n "Communion". Ittusrem i ufella n usarid-nna yan yigider, ittmettalen azamul n John Agʷrram Awenjil (St. John the Evangelist). Ittusrem-as i udis-nnes "coat of arms" n Ayt Medici. Tettufka-as akud-ann i Verrocchio yat temhelt iẓlin s "design" n yan umḍel i Cosimo, yan abankiy ittwassnen kigan, ig awed jedd-is n Ayt Medici.

Tizwiri n temrawant n 1470, ikellef-t Lorenzo de Medici s temhelt n udiẓayen n umḍel n baba-s Piero akmed ɛemm-is Giovanni. Ikka-t-nn umḍel-nna mi iga Verrocchio adiẓayen yan umḍel yad ilin anaw. Isgadda-as yan "sarcophagus" (atabut uẓru) imeqquren seg yan uẓru "rouge-foncé" igan afalkay, "trimmed" s uẓru azegzaw akked yifrawen ttusermen s ubrunẓ. Adɣar n wad as-isker yan udiẓayen n yimek nna bedda, g ittili utabut izdi d uɣrab, isker-as nettan yan udiẓayen-yaḍen t-ittajjan ad yili g tuẓẓumt n usaka, nna ittawin ɣer "Sacristy". Isgadda-as Verrocchio yan uzeṭṭa n ubṛunz ittbayanen amm ig ittwaskar s yizakaren.

Amasiḥ d Thomas AgʷrramEdit

Taglizt akkʷ igan tar anaw ammas n Flurinsa azmez-ann, ad tt-igan d taglizt n Orsanmichele. Tga yad tmeṣkiwt-ad tin yan ugadaz n usengar mi ittawkla usalas s tugna tatigant n Madonna d Urba. Infel ugadaz-ad ɣer taglizt, dlen-as idisan-nnes s yiɣerban. Kkan-t-nn g yiɣerban-nnes kra n tburjutin (niches) ganin uɣizen, mani g ttafan ad sbidden isefrisen. Swurrin kigan n medden ammas n Flurinsa g tazzulin mzaraynint, amunen midden-ad kull g mennawt tmaddasin mi ttinin "guilds". Ikka-t-nn da ittiri kraygan guild ilan azal g temdint, ad ɣur-s yili usefris n ugʷrram-nnes abaṭrun g yat seg tburjutin-nna n Oransmichele. Kkan-t-nn da ttwaskaren isefrisen-ad s yifassen n widda akkʷ ufnin g yimsefrisen.