Wq/ha/Abdul Hamid II

< Wq‎ | ha
Wq > ha > Abdul Hamid II

Not to be confused with Sultan Hamid II. Abdülhamid or Abdul Hamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی, romanized: Abd ül-Hamid-i Sani; Turkish: II. Abdülhamid; 21 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 31 August 1876 to 27 April 1909, and the last sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state.[3] The time period which he reigned in the Ottoman Empire is known as the Hamidian Era. He oversaw a period of decline, with rebellions (particularly in the Balkans), and he presided over an unsuccessful war with the Russian Empire (1877–1878) followed by a successful war against the Kingdom of Greece in 1897, though Ottoman gains were tempered by subsequent Western European intervention.

Abdul Hamid II