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TaclḥitTacelḥitTasusit (s tirra n tifinaɣ: ⵜⴰⵛⵍⵃⵉⵜ, s tirra n taɛrabt: تشلحيت) tga yat tutlayt tamaziɣt illan ɣ tamazirt n lmɣrib, middn li sis isawaln gan Iclḥiyn. nttat ay-gan tutlayt tamaziɣt tamzwarut ɣ umḍan n imssiwln d tiriwt n udɣar arakal nna tumẓ, llan uggar gr 8 ar 10 id mlyun ar sis sawaln. [2]

Tettuysawal Tclḥit ɣ Sus, Iḥaḥan, Lḥuz n Mrrakc d kra n tsggʷin yaḍnin asn d iwalan. Tumẓ tutlayt taclḥit zɣ Taṣṣurt ɣ ugafa ar Aglmim ɣ unẓul ar Warzazat ɣ ugmuḍ. Mac ar tin ntafa tlla ula ɣ timdinin mqqurnin n lmɣrib zund Tigmmi Tumlilt, d Rṛbaṭ d Sla.

Tkattin taclḥit ar tt taran s uskkil aɛrab nɣd alatini, ilin tugt n arratn s tclḥit s uskkil aɛrab. Ɣ isggʷasn ad ggʷranin isfɣ usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt anaw amaynu n tifinaɣ ar as tinin Neo-Tifinaɣ ntat ɣila as tt taran willi as ssnin. Mqqar twuri lli d iskr usinag agldan, agmmay alatini d waɛrab ad akk iggutn slawan ɣ lWib d wantirnit.

Taclḥit kcmn tt iwaliwn n taɛrabt mac nttat ay-gan tutlayt tamaziɣt nna idrus is as kcmt iwaliwn iɛrabn, urd zund taqbaylit d tarifit d tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍnin ..., nẓḍar ad nini mas d nttat ay-gan tutlayt tamaziɣt nna akkʷ iṭṭafn uṭṭun imqqurn n iwaliwn iẓuran ɣ tmaziɣt, zund amdya d izwiln nna illan sul ɣ wawal aclḥi ar ɣassa. Ɣayn ad yujjan tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍnin atn usin zɣ taclḥit afad ad tn skcmn s wawal nsn.

Assaɣ

Imsiwln n tutlayt ad ar qqarn wawal nnsn s yism n Taclḥit[3] (s ugmmay n tfinagh: ⵜⴰⵛⵍⵃⵉⵜ [4]; s ugmmay latin aqbur[5]: Tašlḥiyt; s ugmmay n taɛrabt: تشلحيت). Yism ad iga s tamurfulujit nns ism unti, ittuyssufɣ zɣ yism amay Aclḥiy "lli iṭṭafn unamk n walli isawaln taclḥit"[6]. Ismawn yaḍnin lli nẓḍar ad naf ɣ tutlayt taclḥit kullutn smuttgn s tɣarast ad, s umdya Aɛṛab "argaz isawaln awal aɛṛab", Taɛṛabt "Tutlayt n iɛṛabn"[7].

Aẓuṛ n yism n AcelḥiyTaclḥit ur ittussan. Tikklt tamzwarut nna ɣ d gis ibayyn ism ad ɣ ammas n idlisn iqburn ikka tt inn ɣ tasut tis-17, d nnan fllas mayad: « [...] dans Maroc et dans toutes les provinces de cet Empire, aussi bien que parmi les Numides et les Getules qui font vers l’occident, on parle la langue africaine pure, qu’on nomme Chilha et Tamazegt, noms fort anciens. »[8]. s taclḥit: « [...] Ɣ Lmɣrib d ɣ tisgiwin akk n Umnkud ad, ula gr Inumidiyn d Ijiṭuln lli d ikkan tsga n utaram, ar sawaln yat tutlayt tafiqit taḥurrit, nna qqarn Clḥa d Tamazigt, imawn ad qdimn bahra. ». Ɣilad, yism ad iga yan yism nna bahra sxdamn iclḥiyn gra-tsn.

Ar ttinin kran idlisn d iɣbula masd ism ad ur igi aẓɣuṛan, d mas "Clḥ" ikka awal aɛṛab n "Cilḥ" (amagut: "culuḥ" , s unamk n amxxar). Mac yism ad ur illi d ur atn nttafa abla ɣ tantalayin tiɛrabiyn n ugmuḍ anammas, d ur akk illi yism ad s unamk ad ɣ tantalayin tiɛrabiyn n tfriqt n ugafa, mayad ayd igan tanqqiṭṭ tamlkukt n tannayt ad. Ad ur nttu masd tugt n id butussna lli d isnubcn f waẓuṛ n yism ad ddun ar tllin ɣ imawaln n tutlayin yaḍnin, imil, ixṣṣa ad zwar ẓṛn imawaln n taclḥit. Mayad acku willi d isnubcn f waẓuṛ nns kullutn gan ibṛṛaniyn d ur aɣ sawaln s taclḥit. Anamk ad snyuddrn as bahra ayt umussu amaziɣ ɣ isggʷasn ad ggʷranin, wid iggʷran rruwjn i unamk ad fad ayg yism n Aclḥiy kra ixccn gr middn d iclḥiyn, s uwttas; ad smunn imaziɣn kullutn ddu yan yism adt igan Amaziɣ[9].

Llan daɣ agudi n warramn n ufasr n yism ad s imawaln n tutlayt Taclḥit. Talli akkʷ gisnt igan amẓlan tga tt tin umara Muḥammad Aqdim, lli d inna ɣ yan n idlisn nns, masd yism n "Cluḥ", ɣ tidt, iga yism aẓɣuṛan ittuyfkan i imzdaɣ n Lmɣrib, imṣmuḍiyn ɣ waṭlas mqqurn ɣ tisgwin n Mrrakc, tmazirt n Sus d waṭlas mẓẓiyn i ixfawn nnsn. Ɣ Taclḥit, amyag "Iclḥ" ila unamk n izdɣ bdda, zund iɣ tnnit "staqqṛ"[10]. Ɣayad ad aɣ yakkan masd yism n Cluḥ" iga tt middn lli d istaqṛn. Inna ula ɣ tirra nns masd ur iṭṭf ta yan unamk ad nsiggl f unamk n tguri ad ɣ imawaln n tutlayin yaḍnin[9].

Tuddma ad n A- ɣ tguri n Aclḥiy tga azwir nna nẓḍar ad naf ɣ tugt n tguriwin ticlḥiyin, ar nttafa azwir ad ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin s tɣarast ad nit, d s tutlayin tifrusyawiyin s tɣarasin yaḍn yaẓn i umaɣnu nɣ talɣa y'ad. Tagara n -iy (iẓḍar ad ig waẓuṛ nns tutlayt taɛrabt -iyy) ad ismuttgn ismawn d ifrisn. Llan ula kran timzarayin yaḍnin ddu talɣa n Aclḥay d Taclḥayt, s tgara n -ay ɣ udɣar n -iy ddu iḍiṣ n targalt lli t id izwarn [11]. Amagut n Aclḥiy iga tt Iclḥiyn ; ama yism unti nns tga tt Taclḥiyt (naḥya-t d tutlayt asmrs n y dat -t iggʷran), amagut Ticlḥiyin. Amma s ddarija nɣ taɛrabt tamɣribit, amsiwl amay iga Cəlḥ, amagut Cluḥ, d tutlayt Cəlḥa,[12] tawafuɣt tawtmant n Taclḥit.

Ɣ warratn iqqburn n tutlayt Taclḥit, ar nttafa mas tkka tt inn tutlayt teṭṭaf yism n Tamaziɣt nɣd Tamazixt. S umdya, amara imqqurn Awzal (tuddma n tasut tis-18) isawl f nnaḍm n Tmazixt ann ifulkin.[13]

Acku tmazirt n Sus aɣ bahra ggutn imsiwln n tutlayt ad, illa mad isxdamn yism n Tasusit (tutlayt n Sus) fad ay'sawl f tutlayt Taclḥit. Amsiwl amay iga Asusiy, amagut Isusiyn, d yism unti Tasusiyt, amagut nns Tisusiyin.

Amḍan n imsiwln

 
Tigrawin n tmazirt n Lmɣrib nna ɣ ttuysawaln Taclḥit dar uggar n uzgn n middn.     +90% n imzdaɣ     +50% n imzdaɣ

Ar ɣassad ur illi kran uṣiḍn igaddan ittuyskarn f imsiwln n tutlayin timaziɣin ɣ tmazirt n Lmɣrib. Ɣ usit n Ethnologue, ɣ taẓrigt tis 17-20 (2014-2017) ibdr usit ad mas umḍan n imsiwln nna d ifka uṣiḍn n Lmɣrib n usggas 2014, ar ittini mas isklm umḍan n imsiwln n tutlayt Taclḥit kran 4 id mlyun, adt igan 13% n imzdaɣ n tmazirt. Ama ɣ taẓrigt tis 21 nns (2018), inna Ethnologue mas llan 7 id mlyun n middn ɣ usggas n 2016 (war uɣbalu), adt igan 20% n imzdaɣ. Iɣ nenna masd tin 2016 ad iṣḥan, uṣiḍn n Lmɣrib n usggas 2014 islki bahra umḍan n imsiwln, acku icqqa nit ad tamnt masd tɣlid tigmiḍi n ismiwln n tutlayt ad s 7 tnqqiḍin gr 2014 d 2016. Ar ittini uṣiḍn lli ittuyskar ɣ 2016 masd umḍan n imsiwln n taclḥit ɣ Lmɣrib iga 5 id mlyun, adt igan 14% n imzdaɣ[14], Macc tugt n middn ibayn asn umḍan ad ur izdi d lwaqiɛ d masd umḍan imqqur bahra f wad llid nnan[15].

Kran iɣbula yaḍn ar daɣ ttinin yan umḍan bahra imqqurn f walli d yad nbdr, Stroomer (2001a) iqddr masd llan «gr 6 d 8 id mlyun» n imsiwln, s ɣikkad (2008) islkm umḍan ad s «kran 8 ar 9 id mlyun».[16] Stroomer ur ifka awd yan uɣbalu nna f isrs asutg nns.

Mqqar umḍan n imsiwln n tutlayt taclḥit, slawann akkʷ irgazn, ar sawaln Taclḥit d Ddarija ula nttat, ur illi awd kra immaln masd taclḥit ka tutlayt iddrn tettuysmigl ɣ imal. S ssbab n tamrniwt tudrift n umḍan n imzdaɣ n Lmɣrib ɣ isggʷasn ad ggʷranin (zɣ 12 id mlyun ɣ 1961 ar uggar n 33 id mlyun ɣ 2014), nẓḍar ad nini masd Taclḥit ɣilad tettuysawal uggar n kraygat uzmz izrin ɣ umzruy nns.

Tantalayin

Tantalayin n tutlayt taclḥit ur jju d nttni ad tn ikkan igan imrsi n kran usnubbc ɣ mad izrin, macc tugt n iminagn nnan masd imsiwln n tantalayin kullutn n tutlayt taclḥit ẓḍarn ad rmsn ingr-atsn. Walli akkʷ izwarn iga Stumme, lli d iẓṛan masd imsiwl ufan ad ttuyfahamn. Inna gis : "acku tantalayin imdann n tutlayt nnsn ur bahra tt naḥya."[17] Mayad nit ad isddid ssi Ḥmad Bukus, yan usnils amɣribi d amsiwl s tutlayt Taclḥit, lliɣ d inna: "Teṭṭaf Taclḥit yat tamunt tamdrut lli d ittajjan iclḥiyn ad sawaln d ingratsn bla awd kran tmukrist,zɣ tmazirt n Iḥaḥan ɣ ugafa ataram ar Ayt Baɛmran ɣ ammas n iffus ataram, zɣ Wactukn ɣ utaram ar Iznagn ɣ ugmuḍ, d zɣ Aqqa ɣ tiniri ar Tassawt ɣ uzaɣar n Mrrakc."[18]

Ur llin iwtta ibaynn mzyan gr tantalayin n tutlayt taclḥit d tantalayin n tamaziɣt n Waṭlas anammas. Azrig lli d isfrraqn gr tutlayin ad s sin illa ɣ kra mani gr uzgig llid ittawin zɣ Mrrakc ar Zagura, macc ar tinnin masd tqbilin n Iɣujdamn, Igliwa d Ayt Wawzgit walan i Taclḥit, d tiqbilin tidjarn nnsn Inultan, Infdwak d Imɣran walan i tamaziɣt n Waṭlas anammas.

Angraw n tirra

Zund tutlayin yadni n imaziɣn, Taclḥit tyura smnaw igmayn, mac gan igmayn imaziɣiyn ilatiniyn willi bahra styura. Ama igmmayn iramaniyn, li sa tyura taɛrabt d ntat. Trrayad art nt nttafa bahra ɣ tmzgadiwin tiqqbura dar willi ɣranin ɣ skayl timuslimin. Ɣilad lan midn li ar taran s igmmayn n tifinaɣ.

Agmmay n Tifinaɣ

  Imgradn lli yas iḍfarn : Agmmay n Tifinaɣ
 
Yat lblaka taman tamdint n Tiznit tettyura s Taɛrabt, Tafransist d tutlayt Taclḥit s iskkiln n Tifinaɣ.

Uran imzwura tamaziɣt s iskkiln n tfinaɣ d iskkiln n tarabt d iskkiln n tlatinit maca ɣ usggʷas n 2003 iskcm usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt tifinaɣ ɣ uslmad n tmaziɣt; tdwl tifinaɣ niɣ tifinaɣ tunṣibt ɣ umrruk.

Agmmay Talatinit

Agmay n Talatint gis sin wanawn:

Agmmay alatin amaziɣ

  Imgradn lli yas iḍfarn : Agemmay alatin n tmaziɣt

Agmmay amaziɣ alatin nɣd Agmmay alatin n tmaziɣt nɣd akk Tamɛmmrit iga yan ugmmay alatini ittiwskar fad ad sis nttara tutlayin timaziɣin n ugafa zund taclḥit, tarifit, taqbaylit d tacawit d wiyyaḍ zɣ isggwasn 1840 Agemmay Amaziɣ Alatin iṭṭaf 23 iskkiln Ilatiniyen d 10 isekkilen yaḍn. Yiwid agmmay ad ism n Tamɛmmrit, tajmilt i Mulud Mɛemmri, nttan atn iɛdln.

Tirra yad tggut bahra dar middn lli iɣran tamaziɣt ɣ ammas n tsdawit nɣ lli snubbucn ɣ tussna n ilsan n tutlayin timaziɣin, ar tt ntafa ɣ kigan n idlisn n Taclḥit n uzmz ad, d nzḍar att naf ula ɣ tirubba n faysbuk d sitat n iclḥiyn lli dar tɛzza tutlayt nnsn irin t ad timɣur.

Agmmay alatin afransis

Tirra ad a bahra nttafa ɣ wantirnit acku nttat ayzḍar kraygat yan ast ifhm, tusi lqawaɛid n tirra n laṣwat zɣ tafransist (zund c = ch ,ɣ = gh ,x = kh) mac ur teṭṭaf lqawaɛid ibiddn, kuyan d mamnk ast ittara, ɣayn af tga ɣir i umsawal d imddukkal d tirra ɣ ammas n lyutub d sitat yaḍn..

Agmmay Taɛrabt

Uran imḥḍarn n timzgadiwin n iffus n tmazirt n umrruk s tirra n taɛrabt ulla s igmmayn n tlatint, illin idllisn d arratn s iskkiln ad .

Taskla

  Imgradn lli yas iḍfarn : Taskla Taclḥit
 
Adlis n Muḥmmad Awzal s Tclḥit s uskkil aɛrab

Yuwi d uslmad Ɛumaṛ Affa lli igan aslmad ɣ tmɣrudt n Rrbaṭ dffir isnubbucn lli iga f usntl amzruy n warra amaziɣ s uskkil « aεṛab » mas iga Umṛṛuk s umata ansa i uskkir n warratn s tutlayin tamaziɣin s tmzarayin nns akkʷ swa ɣ Sus nɣ d Laṭlas nɣ d Rrif irnu isslkn ɣ yat tinawt iga tt usinag agldan n tussna tamaziɣt ɣ 2003 mas d Sus ad igan tansbaɣurt uggar s wanaw ad n warratn. Aya yuwi t id, mk lli inna, wansa arakal lli illan dar tsga ad d lli tt yujjan ad taggug f iḍiṣn inadafn aylli tt yujjan ad tḍuf kigan n uzug anutlay d unamun d udmsan d usrtan.

Awttas zɣ warratn lli skrn iclḥiyn n zik ur igi tutlayt taclḥit s ixf nns maka d ad ssawḍn tussna tamsɣant i ugdud amaziɣ lli ikkan ur da ittakʷz taεṛabt, aya isfaw t mas amata ɣ warratn ad aɣn d iskkinn n usgd swa ɣ igr n usumd nɣ ɣ igr n uflas nɣ ɣ igr n tikli n wasr nɣ isfra lli t ittalɣn, issuman t awd acku ur snzgumn imaratn ad s wanaw n tirra d ur srisn kra n ilugnn i usnmarra amaziɣ.

Kra n imdyatn zɣ warratn aɣ d yuwḍn :

  • Asuɣl n udlis Al anwar assunnyya fi lkalimat assunnyya « Tifawin tisunniyin ɣ tguriwin tisunniyin » i Muḥammad ug Aḥmad u Juzayy Aɣṛnaṭi s tmaziɣt n Sus.
  • Arra  « Tafukt n ddin » i Ɛli u Hmad ug Iliɣ , adlis ad iga yat tmdyazt ɣ llant mraw n yifḍn n tiwnt .

Yuwi d uslmad Affa ɣ tinawt nns uttay n 25 n warra ttyaranin s tutlayt taclḥit, irnu uslmad ad mas d arrantn lli ittyamaẓn ɣ Uṛubba ttwaḥḍan ɣ Iks Un ɣ Rufans ɣ Fṛanṣa.

Zɣ warratn imaziɣn igan izaykutn lli ittyaskarn s tmaziɣt « Kitab al-asmae » (Adlis n wassaɣn) lli igan yan usgzawal (msmun awal) amaziɣ aεṛab ittuɣuln s tasut tiss 12 n tlalit, ittyaskar usgzawal ad ɣ 1146 dat n tlalit, yara t u Tunart lli iluln ɣ 1085 dat tlalit immt ɣ 1172 (ur igi u Tumrt Amuwḥḥidi), tili ɣ warra ad 2500 n tguri tamaziɣt lli ɣ amunt 250 n wassaɣn n imɣayn, ig usgzawal ad yan zɣ isgzawaln akkʷ iqbrn ɣ umaḍal. Kkuẓ n warratn ad ufan n udlis ad, kraygat yan gisn ur irwas wayyaḍ. Munn kullu ɣ yan warra ig win tasut tis-XVII ar tis-XX. Gan s kkuẓ-itsn win umara Ibn Tunart. Tis-kkuẓt, talli akk gisn istawhman, gis uggar n 2.500 n ukccumn iɛrabn d usuɣl nnsn s taclḥit. Ikccumn ad smunntn ɛla ḥsab imrsi nnsn (tazzit n ufgan, imudar n tgmmi, imɣi ...).

Zɣ kullu tutlayin timaziɣin n ɣilad, ɣwalli akk iqrbn irwasn tamaziɣt taqburt tazaykut nna s yura Ibn Tunart adlis nns tga-tt Taclḥit. Mayad ar itbayyan mzyan ɣ iwaliwn d tguriwin n umawal ad acku llan gisn kran tguriwin nna ur aɣ tn tafat abla ɣ tutlayt taclḥit d ur llin ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn, zund: Aɣwy, Afulkiy, Asid, Tigmmi, Idgam d Dar.

D llan daɣ kran iwaliwn ɣ udlis ad nna ur llin ɣ taclḥit n ɣilad, wala ɣ tutlayin timaziɣin yaḍn, zund: Kasra (ɣar), Wala (bahra), Aysladd (abla).

Isnubbucn imzwura

Tikklt tamzwarut lli ɣ rad gis ittyura aglam n tajṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit iga tt twuri n asnils almani Hans Stumme (1864–1936), lli d isfɣ udlis nns Handbuch des Schilḥischen von Tazerwalt ɣ usggʷas n 1899. Tɣama-nn tjṛṛumt n Stumme aɣbalu n jṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit lli akkʷ imqqurn i uzgn n tasut. Tamukrist lli s tinn ikkan ɣ ammas n igi nns iga tt asmrs n talsarit timsislit bahra icqqan, nna ittyskarn fad ad tg tamnɣudt, macc ur ar tlkkam ɣ tugt n twal ad tsml kran usmdya amssusaɣ n imuɣna ittuysawaln. Isfɣ d Stumme ula yat tlknsit n tinfusin n Taclḥit (1895, ittuysnfl gis kra ɣ Stroomer 2002).

Amara wissin lli rad isawl f tutlayt ad iga tt Saɛid Cid Kawi (Saʿīd al-Sidqāwī, 1859-1910), amsiwl n yat zɣ tutlayin timaziɣin n Dzayr. Isfɣ d yad ɣ-akud-ann yan umawal n Twarg (1894), ilmma igllb dar tutlayin timaziɣin n tmazirt n Lmɣrib. Amawal nns Dictionnaire français-tachelh'it et tamazir't (1907) gis agudi n iwaliwn s tutlayt taclḥit d tamaziɣt n waṭlas anammas, d uggar n 20 tiwriqin n tiwinas ubɣirn. Arra y'ad ibayn gis ittuyskar s yat tɣarast igan taddraft, iqqand ad ittyuɣra s urar n lbal.

Di yiḍ n imnɣi amaḍlan amzwaru, ibayn-d yat tadlist timskrt mẓẓiyn ittyuran s ifassn n yan ukapitan (mn bɛd rad yuɣal akulunil) Léopold-Victor Justinard (1878–1959), ilan yism n Manuel de berbère marocain (dialecte chleuh). Ar gis nttafa ubckil anjṛum igzzuln, yat tlknsit n tinfusin, n tmdyazt d umarg, d kran imsawaln bahra istawhman, kullutn munn d usuɣl nnsn. Ittyura udlis ad ɣ tizi lliɣ tinn ikka umara isala timhal tiɛṣkṛiyn ɣ tsga n Fas, imikk dffir usdurri afransawi (1912). Yura Justinard ula kigan d idlisn izdin d umzruy n tmazirt n Sus.

Emile Laoust (1876–1952), tamarat takffaḍt lli yuran kigan d idlisn d imgrad izdin d tutlayin timaziɣin, tsfɣ-d ɣ 1921 arra nns Cours de berbère marocain (taẓrigt tis snat tettuysmɣur 1936), gis aslmd n tjṛṛumt d timssirdin itcqqun imikk a s imikk d iwaliwn isgumann, iḍṛiṣn ifulkin (ur lan usuɣl) d yat talgamt n tguriwin.

Isbuɣla Edmond Destaing (1872-1940) bahra tussniwin n umawal n taclḥit s udlis nns Etude sur la tachelḥît du Soûs. Vocabulaire français-berbère (1920) d udlis n Textes berbères en parler des Chleuhs du Sous (Maroc). Inna Destaing mas rad iswuri ɣ yan usnubbc izdin d tajṛṛumt taclḥiyt, macc xtad iggʷran ur rad jju tẓṛ tifawt.

Isfɣ-d akumunḍun Robert Aspinion udlis n Apprenons le berbère: initiation aux dialectes chleuhs (1953), lli igan yan udlis islmadn tajṛṛumt tanɣmast, mac ur trwi ukan yan imikk. Tilsaritin rxan macc gan imnɣad n Aspinion ḥidn ingrawn imsislitn d ifransawiyn iqdimn.

Ama Tikklt tamzwarut lli ɣ rad gis ittyuskar uglam s tutlayt tanglizt iga tt Outline of the Structure of Shilha (1958) n umara amirikani Joseph Applegate (1925–2003). Iswuri f wawal n imsiwln n ayt Sidi Ifni, ittyura warra s yat tmamkt ur bahra iḥlan nna s icqqa ast sis tɣrt, abla yan umawal lli d ibayn mzyan. Tirsalitin lli gis illan ur bahra msackan d wawal n taclḥit yɛni ur tettuyskar mzyan.

Adlis waḥdut nna ɣ tlla tajṛṛumt n tutlayt Taclḥit d nna ittyuran ddu usati asnils atrar iga tt Le Berbère (1988) n umara Lionel Galand (1920–2017), asnils afransawi d amassan n tamaziɣt. Amara y'ad ixdm kigan ɣ udlis nns f wawal n Iɣccan ɣ idrarn n waṭlas mẓẓiyn, iskr asn ula usmzazal d taqbaylit n Dzayr, d tatwargit n Nijr.

Tasnmslit

Iɣritn

Tutlayt Taclḥit teṭṭaf kraḍ iɣritn imslicann, nna ɣ tiɣzi ur tgi aṣḍḍaṛ imsfru. Ar mmaln iɣritn yat lgamme igan abaraw bahra n imslinyen. Aɣri / a / art bahra tnṭaqn s [a] nɣ [æ], d / u / tettuynṭaq bla awd kran ukrnay anmɣur abla iɣ tettrs taman kran w. Tilit n kran targalt afarign da tɣr i asufɣ imslmms uggar n uɣri, zund ɣ tguri n kraḍ [krɐdˤ], kkuẓ [kkɤzˤ], sḍis [sdˤɪs] (smzazal at yan [jæn], sin [sin] d smmus [smmʊs] )

Mnid Anammas Uɣul
Iqqn i u
Irẓmn a

Ar d tbayyan kran iɣritn imslicann yaḍnin ɣ iwaliwn imaynutn lli d ikkan tutlayin yaḍnin, s umdya / o / zund ɣ rristora "restaurant" (n tfransist).

Iɣritn inkliyn d « schwa »

Abla kraḍ iɣritn imslican ad, llan kran iɣritn inkliyn ur gin imslican, nna s ttussan s yism n "schwa". Ɣ tugt n imdyatn, aɣri n tukkit ar nttiẓḍur ad as nssld dffir tuddma n kran tafirt war aɣri CC nɣ CCC, iɣ tga yat ɣ tirgalin timawayn, nɣ sin itsn, ttuyssladn[19], s umdya tigemmi [tigĭmmi], ameḥḍar [amɐ̆ʜdˤɐr]. Ɣ ammas n twuri n tilsaritin timsislitn lli d skrn Stumme (1899) d Destaing (1920, 1940), tugt n iɣritn inkliyn ad ttyumlan.

Kran imaratn yaḍnin dffir mayad zund Aspinion (1953), sxddmn tamatart ⟨e⟩ fad ad ṛcmn adɣar nna ɣ ittuẓḍar ad gis ttusflad kran uɣri n tukkit, mknna tga taɣara nns, d ar ttaran ula ⟨e⟩ nɣ ɣ tilawt awd yan uɣri, mqqar akk tay-gzzuln, ur aɣ tettuysflad. S umdya akessab [akssæb] nɣ ar icetta [ar iʃtta]. Tamatart ⟨e⟩, ar as ttinin "schwa", zund talli d isxdm Aspinion d wiyyaḍ yaḍnin, tuɣal d anagraw awnɣan ka ittuysxdamn fad ad iml masd targalt lli t iḍfarn tlla ɣ tuddma n tafirt: [ak⟨e⟩s.sab], [ a.ri.š⟨e⟩t.ta]. Mklli s iẓṛa Galand, Asnqḍ n «schwa» ikka d «tamyurt tabṛṛanit n Taclḥit». D mklli st daɣ imla s tɣarast yaḍn Ridouane (2008), iɣritn inkliyn nɣ «vocoïdes intrusifs» ur akk imkn ad asn nfk aẓayr n aɣri apanṭatik. Ilmma yuf ad akk ur nttara iɣritn inkliyn d « schwa », d ad nttara iɣritn s tamamkt igan timsislit, xklli nit iskr Galand (1988) ɣ tiẓrigin kulltn n iḍṛiṣn imaynutn.

Asmkl n hyatus

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Targalin

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Iznaɣritn

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Tussi d tiɣzi

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Tuṣkiwt n tafirt

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Anawn n tifirin

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Imitrikn

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Tajṛṛumt

Ismawn

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn infliciyn

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn ifliciyn

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Ismawn ibṛṛaniyn

Afrux isawaln s taclḥit.

Kra n tguriwin nna d kan tutlayt taɛrabt d kra n tguriwin nna mrwasn ɣ tclḥit d tutlayt taɛibrit d tutlayt talatinit d tutlayt taṣbnyulit :

Taclḥit Taɛrabt Taclḥit Taɛibrit Taclḥit Talatinit Taclḥit Taṣbnyulit
afrran frran فران agadir gadir גָּדֵר afullus bullus Pullus acaqqur sixur Segur
aḥddad ḥddad حداد aẓalim bslim בצלים asnus asinus Asinus lficṭa fyista Fiesta
axmmas xmmas خماس aɣanim qanim קנים alili lilyum Lilium sskwila skwila Escuela
agzzar jazzar جزار lmd lmud ללמוד taɣawsa kusa Causa cmrir sumbriru Sombrero
acṭṭab cṭṭab شطاب abaw faba Faba acnti sintinu Centeno

Kran izwiln nna mrwasn d tutlayin simitik :

Taclḥit Tigrinya Tafiniqit Taɛrabt
5 smmus ḥammuṣ- ḥammuš- ḥmṣ ḥmš xams- xams-
6 sḍis ṣidiṣ- šɨdɨš- ṣṣ šš sitt- sitt-
7 sa ṣubɛat šobʕat- ṣbɛšbʕ sabɛ- sabʕ-
8 tam ṣummun- šommon- ṣmn šmn taman- θamān-
9 tẓa tiṣɛat- tɨšʕat- tṣɛ tšʕ tisɛ- tisʕ-

Aswuri s waddad amaruz

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Tasnamkt n ismawn tiwtmanin

  Tagzzumt ad txwa ur gis illi yat d ur gis ittyura amya, Aws ɣ tirra n tgzzumt ad ! Manka rad skrɣ ?

Imqqimn inimann

Llan kraḍ tigrummawin n imqqimn inimann:

  • Imzirgn
  • Iklitikn n tɣawsiwin usridn
  • Uḍfiṛn

Abla mayad, llan daɣ sin tigrummawin inafuɣn nna ɣ llan imqqimn ilan uḍfiṛn (abla i umzwaru amyiwn):

  • Iklitikn n tɣawsiwin arusridn
  • Ismmudn imalan

Tawsit tettuymla ɣ tis-snat tamyiwnt d tis-snat d tis-kraṭṭ tamagutt. Tawsit ur tettuymla ɣ tis-kraṭṭ tamyiwnt d tamzwarut tamagutt. Tawsit ur jju ittuymla ɣ ammas n umzwaru amyiwn.

Iklitikn n tɣawsa tusridt
 
Taɣawsa tusridt
clitics
Uḍfiṛn
 
Taɣawsa tarusridt
Iklitikn
Imili
Ismmudn
1 sg. nkki(n) yyi V-Ø / C-i yyi V nw / C inw
2 sg.m. kyyi(n) k -k a-k nn-k
sg.f. kmmi(n) km -m a-m nn-m
3 sg.m. ntta(n) t -s a-s nn-s
sg.f. nttat tt / stt
1 pl.m nkkʷni(n) -nɣ a-ɣ nnɣ
pl.f nkkʷnti(n)
2 pl.m. kʷnni(n) kʷn V-wn / C-un a-wn nn-un
pl.f. kʷnnimti(n) kʷnt V-wnt / C-unt a-wnt nn-unt
3 pl.m. nttni(n) tn -sn a-sn nn-sn
pl.f. nttnti(n) tnt -snt a-snt nn-snt
∅ = walu amurfim

Tutlayt tamdrugt

Ibdr Destaing yat tutlayt tamdrugt igan s yism inmantadubirt nna s sawaln «kran middn ɣ Sus, slawann akkʷ tarwa d ayt Sidi Ḥmad u Musa». Ifka yan umdya: is kn tusat inman? "is da tsawalt tutlayt tamdrugt ?"

Sin tutlayin timdrugn ttuysawaln dar timɣarin ticlḥiyin ad inna Lahrouchi d Ségéral (2009). Ar as ttinin tagnawt (id ikkan agnaw "walli ur da isslid") d taɛẓmiyt (id ikkan ddarija ɛəẓmiya "tutlayt tabṛṛanit") nɣ taqqẓmiyt. Ar sxdamn kigan n tizigztt fad ad sntln tutlayt awal amagnu.

Addag n tutlayt

Tamdyazt s tutlayt Taclḥit
──o Tafrusyawit 
  ├─o Proto-Tamaziɣt 1 (-7000)
    └─o Proto-Tamaziɣt 2 (-2000)
      ├─o Tamaziɣt n umalu
        └──o Tamaziɣt n waṭlas
           └──o Taclḥit

Tinidlisn

Tajṛṛumt

  • Robert Aspinion: Apprenons le berbère: initiation aux dialectes chleuhs. Rabat 1952.
  • Abdallah Boumalk, Manuel de conjugaison du tachelhit (langue berbère du Maroc), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2003 - ISBN 2-7475-5527-5
  • Abdallah El Mountassir, Initiation au Tachelhit, langue berbère du sud du Maroc. "Ra nsawal tachelhit", Paris, L'Asiathèque, 1999 - ISBN 2-911053-53-2
  • Hans Stumme, Handbuch des Schilhischen von Tazerwalt. Grammatik, Lesestücke, Gespräche, Glossar, Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1899.

Imawaln

  • Abdellah Bounfour & Abdallah Boumalk, Vocabulaire usuel du tachelhit, Éditions Centre Tarik Ibn Ziyad, Rabat.
  • Edmond Destaing, Étude sur la tachelḥît du Sous. I- Vocabulaire français-berbère, Paris, Imprimerie Nationale, 1920
  • Abdallah El Mountassir, Dictionnaire des verbes tachelhit-français (parler berbère du sud du Maroc), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2003 - ISBN 2-7475-3577-0
  • Antoine Jordan, Dictionnaire berbère-français (dialectes tašelhait), Rabat, Omnia, 1934.
  • Michel Quitout, Grammaire berbère (rifain, tamazight, chleuh, kabyle), Paris, L'Harmattan, 2007 - ISBN 2-7384-6004-6

Taskla

  • Paulette Galand-Pernet, Littératures berbères, des voix, des lettres, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France - PUF, 1998 - ISBN 2-13-049518-4
  • Paulette Galand-Pernet, Recueil de poèmes chleuhs. I- Chants de trouveurs, Paris, Klincksieck, 1972 - ISBN 2-252-01415-6.
  • Hans Stumme, Dichtkunst und Gedichte der Schluh, Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1895
  • Nico Van den Boogert, The Berber Literary Tradition of the Sous, with an edition and translation of ‘The Ocean of Tears' by Muhammad Awzal (d. 1749), Leiden, Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten (Sticht de Goeje, 27), 1997.

Iḍṛiṣn

  • Edmond Destaing, Textes berbères en parler des Chleuḥs du Sous (Maroc), Paris, Geuthner, 1940.
  • Harry Stroomer, An anthology of Tashelhiyt Berber folktales (South Morocco), Köln, Köppe, 2001 (Berber studies 2) - ISBN 3-89645-381-5
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber folktales from Tazerwalt (South Morocco) : a linguistic reanalysis of Hans Stumme's Tazerwalt texts with an English translation, Köln, Köppe, 2002 (Berber studies 4) - ISBN 3-89645-383-1 (riedizione di: Hans Stumme, Märchen der Schluh von Tazerwalt, Lepzig, Hinrichs, 1895)
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber texts from the Ayt Brayyim, Lakhsas and Guedmioua region (South Morocco) : a linguistic reanalysis of Récits, contes et légendes berbères en Tachelhiyt by Arsène Roux with an English translation, Köln, Köppe, 2003 (Berber studies 5) - ISBN 3-89645-384-X
  • Harry Stroomer, Tashelhiyt Berber texts from Ida u Tanan (South Morocco), Köln, Köppe, 2004 (Berber studies 9) - ISBN 3-89645-388-2

Ilikitn n imawaln

Tiɣbula

  1. Taclḥit - Ethnologue (23rd ed., 2020)
  2. Rhythms and Rhymes of Life: Music and Identification Processes of Dutch, Miriam Gazzah, 2008
  3. El Mountassir (2017: 167)
  4. " Amawal n wantirnit " - Asinag Agldan n Tussna Tamaziɣt
  5. Justinard (1914: 2), Destaing (1920: 166), Galand (1988, 1.14).
  6. Ɣ tugt n warratn, Aclḥiy iṭṭaf unamk n "Amsiwl n Taclḥit". Ur nssn is ula tarwa n imsiwln lli ur ssin i tutlayt ad ar ttinin f ixfawn nnsn Acelḥiy nɣd uhu. Ila yism ad ula yan unamk izdin d iẓuṛan n ufgan: Imsiwln imlluln n Taclḥit ar skarn lfrq gratsn d wid bu yilm asggan (ayyawn n ismgan) s tguri n asuqqiy , yat tguri ur bahra iḥlan acku tkkad yism aɛrab suq "agadaz" (maɣ tn kkan isgman ar tn zznzan ar tn ssaɣn).
  7. Destaing (1920: 20, 166).
  8. Perrot d'Ablancourt 1667: 92-93
  9. 9.0 9.1 Maghrebvoices.com - Max ur ḥmiln imaziɣn n Lmɣrib ad fllasn tinit iclḥiyn ?
  10. Febrayer.com - Cluḥ d Taclḥit, d Maṣmuda d Imṣmudiyn.
  11. Stumme (1899: 3); Laoust (1936: v).
  12. Fox et Abu-Talib (1966: 155), Colin (1993: 976).
  13. Awzal, Baḥr al-Dumūʿ , v.5 (édition dans van den Boogert 1997).
  14. RGPH 2014 - Site HCP
  15. Aljazeera.net - Jadal ḥawla ɛadad annaṭiqin bil amaziɣya
  16. Stroomer (2001a:183n1), Stroomer (2008:289n1).
  17. Stumme (1899: 4).
  18. Boukous (1977: 126).
  19. Galand (1988, 2.1).

Isaɣuln i tɣuriwin insmadn

  • Amard, P. (1997). Textes berbères des Aït Ouaouzguite. Edités et annotés par Harry Stroomer. Aix-en-Provence: Edisud. ISBN 2-85744-960-7.
  • Amarīr, ʿU. (1987). al-Shiʿr al-āmāzīghī al-mansūb ilā Sīdī Ḥammū al-Ṭālib. Tigmmi tumlilt: Maktabat Provence (s taɛrabt d taclḥit).
  • Applegate, J.R. (1958). An outline of the structure of Shilḥa. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
  • Aspinion, R. (1953). Apprenons le berbère. Initiation aux dialectes chleuhs. Rabat: Moncho.
  • Bellakhdar, J. (1997). La pharmacopée marocaine traditionnelle. N.p.: Ibis Press. ISBN 2-910728-03-X.
  • Boogert, N. van den (1989). "Some notes on Maghribi script" [PDF]. Manuscripts of the Middle East. 4: 30–43.
  • Boogert, N. van den (1997). The Berber literary tradition of the Sous. De Goeje Fund, Vol. XXVII. Leiden: NINO. ISBN 90-6258-971-5.
  • Boogert, N. van den (1998). La révélation des énigmes. Lexiques arabo-berbères des xviie et xviiie siècles. Travaux et documents de l'Irémam, no. 19. Aix-en-Provence: Irémam. ISBN 2-906809-18-7.
  • Boogert, N. van den (2000). "Medieval Berber orthography". In Chaker, S.; Zaborski, A. (eds.). Etudes berères et chamito-sémitiques, Mélanges offerts à Karl-G. Prasse. Paris and Louvain: Peeters (pp. 357–377). ISBN 978-90-429-0826-0.
  • Boogert, N. van den (2002). "The names of the months in medieval Berber". In Naït-Zerrad, K. (ed.). Articles de linguistique berbère. Mémorial Werner Vycichl. Paris: L'Harmattan (pp. 137–152). ISBN 2747527069.
  • Boogert, N. van den & Kossmann, M. (1997). "Les premiers emprunts arabes en berbère" (PDF). Arabica. 44 (2): 317–322.
  • Boukous, A. (1977). Langage et culture populaires au Maroc. Essai de sociolinguistique. Casablanca: Dar El Kitab (the bland title hides a book on Shilha containing, among others, nine narrative texts with translations, pp. 152–289).
  • Boumalk, A. (2004). Manuel de conjugaison du tachelhit. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2747555275.
  • Boumalk, A. & Bounfour, A. (2001). Vocabulaire usuel du tachelhit (tachelhit-français). Rabat: Centre Tarik Ibn Zyad. ISBN 9954022899.
  • Cid Kaoui, S. (1907). Dictionnaire français-tachelh'it et tamazir't (dialectes berbères du Maroc). Paris: Leroux.
  • Colin, G.S. (1993). Le dictionnaire Colin d'arabe dialectal marocain. Vol. 1–8. Edited by Z.I. Sinaceur. Rabat: Al Manahil, Ministère des affaires culturelles. ISBN 9981-832-03-0.
  • Dell, F. & Elmedlaoui, M. (1985). "Syllabic consonants and syllabification in Imdlawn Tashlhiyt Berber". Journal of African Languages and Linguistics. 7 (2): 105–130.
  • Dell, F. & Elmedlaoui, M. (2002). Syllables in Tashlhiyt Berber and in Moroccan Arabic. Dordecht, Boston, London: Kluwer. ISBN 978-1-4020-1077-4.
  • Dell, F. & Elmedlaoui, M. (2008). Poetic metre and musical form in Tashelhiyt Berber songs. Köln: Köppe. ISBN 978-3-89645-398-3.
  • Destaing, E. (1920). Etude sur la tachelḥît du Soûs. Vocabulaire français-berbère (PDF). Paris: Leroux (reprinted 1938).
  • Destaing, E. (1937). Textes arabes en parler des Chleuḥs du Sous (Maroc). Paris: Geuthner.
  • Destaing, E. (1940). Textes berbères en parler des Chleuhs du Sous (Maroc). Paris: Geuthner (contains the same texts as Destaing 1937, which see for the translations).
  • Dixon, R.M.W. (2010). Basic linguistic theory. Volume 1, Methodoloy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957106-2.
  • Fox, M. & Abu-Talib, M. (1966). A dictionary of Moroccan Arabic. Washington: Georgetown University Press. ISBN 0-87840-007-9.
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  • Galand-Pernet, P. (1972). Recueil de poèmes chleuhs. Paris: Klincksieck. ISBN 2-252-01415-6.
  • Ggʷižžan, Lḥusin bn Iḥya (2002). Amarg n Faṭima Tabaɛmrant. Rabat: al-Jamʿīyah al-maghribīyah li-l-baḥth wa-l-tabādul al-thaqāfī (s taclḥit).
  • Ibáñez, E. (1954). Diccionario Español-Baamarani (dialecto Bereber de Ifni). Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Africanos.
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  • Justinard, L. (1954). Un petit royaume berbère: le Tazeroualt. Paris: Librairie orientale & américaine.
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  • Kossmann, M. (2013). The Arabic influence on Northern Berber. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-25308-7.
  • Kossmann, M.G. & Stroomer, H.J. (1997). "Berber phonology". In Kaye, A.S. (ed.). Phonologies of Asia and Africa. Vol. 1. Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns (pp. 461–475). ISBN 1-57506-017-5.
  • Lahrouchi, Mohamed & Ségéral, Philippe (July 2009). "Morphologie gabaritique et apophonie dans un langage secret féminin (taqjmit) en berbère tachelhit". Canadian Journal of Linguistics. 54 (2): 291–316.
  • Lamzoudi, M. (1999). Guide d'initiation au dialecte berbère Tachelḥit. Casablanca: Najah El Jadida.
  • Laoust, E. (1920). Mots et choses berbères. Notes de linguistique et d'ethnography, dialectes du Maroc. Paris: Challamel.
  • Laoust, E. (1936). Cours de berbère marocain. Dialectes du Sous du Haut et de l'Anti-Atlas. Deuxième édition revue et corrigée. Paris: Société d'éditions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales (first ed. Paris: Challamel, 1921).
  • El Mountassir, Abdallah (2003). Dictionnaire des verbes tachelhit-français. Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 2747535770.
  • El Mountassir, Abdallah (2009). Méthode de tachelhit, langue amazighe (berbère) du sud du Maroc. Paris: L'Asiathèque. ISBN 978-2915255843.
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