Wp/ksw/ကညီကျိာ်

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ကညီကျိာ် မ့တမ့ၢ် ကညီစှီၤကျိာ် (အဲကလံး: Karen language) အံၤ မ့ၢ်ဝဲဒၣ် စံၣ်နိ-ထၢၤဘဲၣ်ကျိာ်တကျိာ်လၢဘၣ်တၢ်ကတိာ်အီၤလၢ ကီၢ်ပယီ ဒီး ကီၢ်ကၠီၣ်တဲၣ် န့ၣ်လီၤ. ကညီကျိာ်အံၤဘၣ်တၢ်ကတိၤအီၤလၢ (၂) ကကွိၢ်ဃၣ်ဃၣ် လၢကီၢ်ပယီၤ တနီသရံၣ်ကီၢ်ခီဒိၣ်, အ့ယါဝၢၤဒံၤကီၢ်ခီဒိၣ်, တကူၣ်ကီၢ်ခီဒိၣ်, ဒီး ဘၢကိကီၢ်ခီဒိၣ် န့ၣ်လီၤ. လၢကီၢ်ကၠီၣ်တဲၣ် တကပၤ ပှၤကတိၤ ကညီကျိာ်အိၣ်ဝဲ (၁) ကကွဲၢ်ဃၣ်ဃၣ်န့ၣ်လီၤ. ကညီတၢ်ကွဲးလံာ်န့ၣ်ဘၣ်တၢ်သူအီၤလၢ လံာ်မၠါမၤတၢ်ကွဲးန့ၣ်လီၤ. မ့မ့ၢ်လၢပှၤကညီဖိလၢကီၢ်ကၠီၣ်တဲၣ် မုၢ်နုာ်ကလံၤစိးတဖၣ်သူဝဲဒၣ် လံာ်ရိမဲးတၢ်ကွဲးန့ၣ်လီၤ.[2]

ကညီကျိာ်
စှီၤ
ပှၤတဝီဖိကီၢ်သူလ့ၤ, ကီၢ်ပယီၤ, ကီၢ်ကၠီၣ်တဲၣ်
ထူလံၤလၢကညီကီၢ်စဲၣ်, ကီၢ်ပယီၤ
ကီၢ်ကၠီၣ်တဲၣ်
ကလုာ်ဒူၣ်ကညီ
ပှၤကတိၤအကျိာ်ခီၣ်ထံး အပှၤနီၢ်ဂံၢ်
(၃) ကကွဲၢ်[1]
မၠါမၤလံာ်မိၢ်ပှၢ်
ကညီလံာ်မိၢ်ပှၢ်
လံာ်ရိမဲးလံာ်မိၢ်ပှၢ်
Karen Braille
အဖိးသဲစးပတီၢ်
ကျိာ်အိၣ်ဒီးဖိးသဲစး လၢ
 ကီၢ်သူလ့ၤ
ကလုာ်ဒူၣ်ဖိဆံးလၢတၢ်ပာ်ပနီၣ်
ကျိာ် လၢ
ကျိာ်အခိာ်တဖၣ်
ISO 639-2kar
ISO 639-3ksw – ခိာ်ပၣ်ဃုာ်တဖၣ်
ကစၢ်ဒၣ်ဝဲအခိာ်:
ksw – စှီၤ
jkp – ပကုး
jkm – မိပွါ
wea – ဝဲဝီ
 
 
 
 
 
Glottologsout1554
Karen languages map.svg
ကညီကျိာ်တဖၣ်
တၢ်ကွဲးဖုၣ်တခါအံၤအိၣ်ဒီး IPA လံာ်ဖးသီၣ်အဒိ. မ့ၢ်တအိၣ်ဒီး တၢ်မၤစၢၤလၢပာ်ဖျါလံာ်မဲာ်လၢအဘၣ်, နတထံၣ်ယူနံၤခိာ် လံာ်ဖျၢၣ်ဘၣ်ဒီး နကထံၣ်ဝဲ ?, တၢ်လွံၢ်နၢၣ်, မ့တမ့ၢ် တပနီၣ် သ့ဝဲန့ၣ်လီၤ. လၢကမၤန့ၢ်ဘၣ်တၢ်မၤလိခိၣ်တီဘၣ်ဃး IPA တၢ်ပနီၣ်တဖၣ်, လဲၤကွၢ် Help:IPA န့ၣ်တက့ၢ်.

ကျိာ်ဖးဒ့အိၣ်ဝဲအဃိ တခီၣ်တဘျီန့ၣ် ပှၤပာ်အီၤဒ်ကျိာ်အဂၤန့ၣ်လီၤ. ပကုးကျိာ်ဖးဒ့ အိၣ်လၢမုၢ်ထီၣ်ကလံၤစိး, မိပွါကျိာ်ဖးဒ့ အိၣ်လၢမုၢ်နုာ်ကလံၤစိး, ဝဲဝီကျိာ်ဖၣ်ဒ့ ဒီး မိနဲပွါကျိာ်ဖးဒ့.[3]

တၢ်စံၣ်စိၤEdit

ကကညီစှီၤအံၤ ပှၤသူအီၤဒ် ကျိာ်လၢဖိးသဲစးလၢ ကညီကီၢ်စဲၣ် ဒီးလၢ ကညီဒီကလုာ်စၢဖှိၣ်ကရၢအပူၤန့ၣ်လီၤ. တၢ်ကျိာ်ထံန့ၣ်လံာ်စီဆှံလၢကညီကျိာ်လၢ ၁၈၅၃ နံၣ်န့ၣ်လီၤ.

အကလုာ်ကလုာ်Edit

စှီၤကျိာ်ဖးဒ့တဖၣ်

ပကုးန့ၣ်ပှၤသူအီၤလၢ [1]

ပကုးကျိာ်ဖးဒ့တဖၣ်မ့ၢ်ဝဲ ၡွ့ကၠံၤ, မီခၠံၤ, ကၠီၤကၠံ, ဒီး ဘီကလံၤ န့ၣ်လီၤ.

  • ကၠီၤကၠံ ဒီး ၡွ့ကၠံၤ န့ၣ်တၢ်သူအီၤလၢ တီအူကီၢ်ရ့ၣ် လၢ ဘၢကိကီၢ်ခီဒိၣ်န့ၣ်လီၤ.
  • မီခၠံၤ န့ၣ်ပှၤသူအီၤလၢ ကရ့ၣ်နံၣ်ကီၢ်စဲၣ်န့ၣ်လီၤ
  • ဘီကလံ န့ၣ်ပှၤသူအီၤလၢ ကလံၤစိး ကညီကီၢ်စဲၣ်န့ၣ်လီၤ

PhonologyEdit

The following displays the phonological features of present S'gaw Karen:[4]

လံာ်ခီၣ်ထံအဖျၢၣ်တဖၣ်Edit

ကညီလံာ်ခီၣ်ထံးအဖျၣ်တဖၣ်
Labial Dental Alveolar Palato-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
aspirated
voiced b d
Affricate voiceless
aspirated tʃʰ
Fricative voiceless θ s ʃ x h
voiced ɣ ɦ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Approximant central w ɹ j
lateral l
  • An aspirated fricative [] may be present among different accents and dialects.[4]

တၢ်သီၣ်မိၢ်ပှၢ်တဖၣ်Edit

ကညီတၢ်သီၣ်မိၢ်ပှၢ်တဖၣ်
Front Central Back
High i ɨ u
High-mid e o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Low a
  • /ɨ/ varies between central [ɨ] and [ɯ], depending on the dialect.

လံာ်မိၢ်ပှၢ်Edit

The Karen alphabet consist of 25 consonants, 9 vowels, 5 tones and 5 medials. The Karen alphabet was derived from the Burmese scriptas created by the help of the English missionaries around the early 1860s. The Karen alphabet was created for the purpose of translating the Bible into the Karen language. Karen script is written from left to right and requires no spaces between words, although modern writing usually contains spaces after each clause to enhance readability.

Grouped consonants
က
k (kaˀ)

kh (kʰaˀ)

gh (ɣ)

x (x)

ng (ŋ)

s (s)

hs ()

sh (ʃ)

ny (ɲ)

t (t)

hṭ ()

d (d)

n (n)

p (p)

hp ()

b (b)

m (m)

y (ʝ)

r (r)

l (l)

w (w)

th (θ)

h (h)

vowel holder (ʔ)

ahh (ɦ)
  • က has a sound intermediate between k and g; as in g for good
  • is the aspirate of က. It is pronounced like kh as heard in the word camp.
  • has no analogue in the European languages.
  • is pronounced like ch in the German bach, or the Scottish loch.
  • is pronounced like ng as heard in sing
  • has a sound intermediate between s and z.
  • is the aspirate of . It has the sound of ssh, as heard in the phrase hiss him.
  • ရှ is pronounced like sh as heard in shell
  • is pronounced like ny as heard in canyon
  • has a sound intermediate between t and d; say t without air coming out
  • is the aspirate of . It is pronounced like ht as heard in the word hot
  • is pronounced like d as heard in day
  • is pronounced like n as heard in net
  • has a sound intermediate between b and p; say p without air coming out
  • is pronounced like p as heard in pool
  • is pronounced like b in ball
  • is pronounced like m as heard in mall
  • is pronounced like y as heard in backyard
  • is pronounced like r as heard in room
  • is pronounced like l as heard in school
  • is pronounced like w as heard in wonderful
  • is pronounced like th as heard in thin
  • is pronounced like h as heard in house
  • as a consonant, has no sound of its own; it is a mere stem to which vowel signs are attached. Vowel carrier
  • is pronounced as a ɦ sound. See: breathy-voiced glottal approximant

VowelsEdit

Vowels can never stand alone and if a word starts with a vowel syllable, use the vowel carrier "အ" which is silent in order to write words that start with vowel.

Vowels

ah (a)

ee (i)

uh (ɨ)

u (ɯ)

oo (u)

ae or ay (e)

eh (ɛ)

oh (o)

aw (ɔ)
  • a in quota
  • အါa in father
  • အံi in mean
  • အၢ – German ö in Göthe
  • အု – German ü in Glück and Korean Hangul character "ㅡ"
  • အူu in rule, oo in moon
  • အ့a in rate
  • အဲe in met
  • အိo in note
  • အီaw in raw

တအသီၣ်မိၢ်ပှၢ်တဖၣ်Edit

In Shraw Karen, every syllable consists of a vowel, either alone, or preceded by a single or double consonant. A syllable always ends in a vowel. Every syllable may be pronounced in six different tones of voice, the meaning varying according to the tone in which it is pronounced.

တၢ်အသီၣ် တၢ်ဆှဲပၠး
ၢ်(အၢသံ) is pronounced with a heavy falling inflection
ာ်(အးသံ) is pronounced abruptly, at a low pitch
း(ဖျၢၣ်ဆံး) is pronounced abruptly at an ordinary pitch
ၣ်(ဟးသံ) is pronounced with a falling circumflex inflection
ၤ(က့ၣ်ဖိ) is pronounced with a prolonged

even tone


လံာ်ခီၣ်ထံးတဃံးတဖၣ်Edit

လံာ်ခံတခၠီ လံာ်ခီၣ်ထံး
ှ (hg)
ၠ (y)
ြ (r)
ျ (l)
ွ (w)

ကညီလံာ်တၢ်ကွဲးဒိ -

  • + ခံ,
  • + + လံး,
  • က + +ကၠိ,
  • က + + + ၣ်ကျိၣ်,

တၢ်ဘၣ်ထွဲတဖၣ်Edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 ကညီကျိာ် at wp/ksw/Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    စှီၤ at wp/ksw/Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    ပကုး at wp/ksw/Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    မိပွါ at wp/ksw/Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    ဝဲဝီ at wp/ksw/Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Pgaz K'Nyau av lix hkauf htiv
  3. Beckwith, Christopher, ed. (2002). Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages. p. 108.
  4. 4.0 4.1