Wp/khw/نوبل انعام برائے طبیعیات وصول کنندگانن فہرست

< Wp‎ | khwWp > khw > نوبل انعام برائے طبیعیات وصول کنندگانن فہرست

وصول کنندگانEdit

سال وصول کنندگان[A] ملک[B] وجہ[C]
1901ء   [[ ولہیلم رونٹیگن]] جرمنی "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable [[ rays]] subsequently named after him"[1]
1902ء   [[ ہنڈرک لورنٹز]] نیدرلینڈز "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of [[ magnetism]] upon [[ radiation]] phenomena"[2]
  [[ پیڑ زیمین]] نیدرلینڈز
1903ء   [[ ہنری بیکرویل]] فرانس "for his discovery of spontaneous [[ radioactivity]]"[3]
  [[ پیری کیوری]] فرانس "for their joint researches on the [[ radiation]] phenomena discovered by Professor [[ ہنری بیکرویل]]"[3]
  [[ میری کیوری]] پولینڈ
1904ء   [[ رےلیہ]] برطانیہ "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of [[ argon]] in connection with these studies"[4]
1905ء   [[ فلپ لینارڈ]] آسٹریا-Hungary
"for his work on [[ cathode ray]]s"[5]
1906ء   [[ جے جے تھامسن]] برطانیہ "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the [[ conduction of electricity]] by gases"[6]
1907ء   [[ البرٹ اے مچلسن]] امریکا "for his optical precision instruments and the [[ spectroscopic]] and [[ metrological]] investigations carried out with their aid"[7]
1908ء   [[ گبریل لیپمین]] فرانس "for [[ his method of reproducing colours photographically]] based on the phenomenon of [[ interference]]"[8]
1909ء   [[ مارکونی]] اطالیہ "for their contributions to the [[ development of wireless telegraphy]]"[9]
  [[ کارل فرڈینڈ براون]] جرمنی
1910ء   [[ جوہنس ڈیڈریک ونڈر وال]] نیدرلینڈز "for his work on the [[ equation of state]] for gases and liquids"[10]
1911ء   [[ ویلیم وین]] جرمنی "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[11]
1912ء   [[ گوستاف ڈلین]] سویڈن "for his invention of [[ automatic valves]] designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in [[ lighthouses]] and buoys"[12]
1913ء   [[ ہائک کملنگ اونس]] نیدرلینڈز "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of [[ liquid helium]]"[13]
1914ء   [[ میکس وون لیو]] جرمنی "For his discovery of the [[ diffraction of X-rays]] by crystals",[14] an important step in the development of [[ X-ray spectroscopy]].
1915ء   [[ ولیم ہنری براگ]] برطانیہ "For their services in the analysis of [[ crystal structure]] by means of X-rays",[15] an important step in the development of [[ X-ray crystallography]]
  [[ ولیم لاورنس براگ]] آسٹریلیا


1916ء نہیں دیا گیا [[ پہلی جنگ عظیم]]
1917ء   [[ چارلس گلور بارکالا]] برطانیہ "For his discovery of the [[ characteristic Röntgen radiation]] of the elements",[16] another important step in the development of [[ X-ray spectroscopy]]
1918ء   [[ میکس پلانک]] جرمنی "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy [[ quanta]]"[17]
1919ء   [[ جوہنس سٹارک]] جرمنی "for his discovery of the [[ Doppler effect]] in [[ canal rays]] and the splitting of [[ spectral line]]s in [[ electric field]]s"[18]
1920ء   [[ چارلس اڈوارڈ گلیاوم]] Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[19]
1921ء   [[ البرٹ آئنسٹائن]] جرمنی
"for his services to [[ theoretical physics]], and especially for his discovery of the law of the [[ photoelectric effect]]"[20]
1922ء   [[ نیلز بوہر]] ڈنمارک "for his services in the investigation of the structure of [[ atom]]s and of the radiation emanating from them"[21]
1923ء   [[ رابرٹ انڈریو ملکین]] امریکا "for his work on the [[ elementary charge]] of electricity and on the [[ photoelectric effect]]"[22]
1924ء   [[ مینن سیگ بہن]] سویڈن "for his discoveries and research in the field of [[ X-ray spectroscopy]]"[23]
1925ء   [[ جیمز فرانک]] جرمنی "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an [[ electron]] upon an atom"[24]
  [[ گستاف لوڈوگ ہرٹز]] جرمنی
1926ء   [[ جین باپٹسٹ پیرین]] فرانس "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of [[ sedimentation equilibrium]]"[25]
1927ء   [[ آرتھر کومپٹون]] امریکا "for his discovery of the [[ effect named after him]]"[26]
  [[ چارلس تھومسن ریس ولسن]] برطانیہ "for his [[ method]] of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[26]
1928ء   [[ اون ولنس رچرڈسن]] برطانیہ "for his work on the [[ thermionic phenomenon]] and especially for the discovery of [[ the law named after him]]"[27]
1929ء   [[ لیوس دی بروگلی]] فرانس "for his discovery of the wave nature of [[ electron]]s"[28]
1930ء   [[ سی وی رامن]] بھارت "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the [[ effect named after him]]"[29]
1931ء نہیں دیا گیا
1932ء   [[ ورنر ہیزنبرگ]] جرمنی "for the creation of [[ quantum mechanics]], the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the [[ allotropic]] forms of hydrogen"[30]
1933ء   [[ ارون شروڈنگر]] آسٹریا "for the discovery of new productive forms of [[ atomic theory]]"[31]
  [[ پال ڈیراک]] برطانیہ
1934ء نہیں دیا گیا
1935ء   [[ جیمز چیڈوک]] برطانیہ "for the discovery of the [[ neutron]]"[32]
1936ء   [[ وکٹر فرانسس ہیس]] آسٹریا "for his discovery of [[ cosmic radiation]]"[33]
[[ کارل ڈیوڈ انڈریسن]] امریکا "for his discovery of the [[ positron]]"[33]
1937ء   [[ کلنٹن ڈیویسن]] امریکا "for their experimental discovery of the [[ diffraction of electrons]] by crystals"[34]
  [[ جارج پاگٹ تھامسن]] برطانیہ
1938ء   [[ انریکو فرمی]] اطالیہ "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by [[ neutron irradiation]], and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[35]
1939ء   [[ ارنسٹ لاورنس]] امریکا "for the invention and development of the [[ cyclotron]] and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[36]
1940ء نہیں دیا گیا [[ دوسری جنگ عظیم]]
1941ء نہیں دیا گیا جنگ عظیم II
1942ء نہیں دیا گیا جنگ عظیم II
1943ء   [[ اوٹو سٹرن]] امریکا "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the [[ magnetic moment]] of the [[ proton]]"[37]
1944ء   [[ ازیڈور ائیزک ربی]] امریکا "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of [[ atomic nuclei]]"[38]
1945ء   [[ ولف گینگ پاولی]] آسٹریا "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the [[ Pauli principle]]"[39]
1946ء   [[ رچرڈ فائنمین]] امریکا "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of [[ high pressure physics]]"[40]
1947ء   [[ اڈوارڈ وکٹر اپلیٹن]] برطانیہ "for his investigations of the physics of the [[ upper atmosphere]] especially for the discovery of the so-called [[ Appleton layer]]"[41]
1948ء   [[ پیٹرک بلیکٹ , بارون بلیکٹ]] برطانیہ "for his development of the Wilson [[ cloud chamber]] method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of [[ nuclear physics]] and [[ cosmic radiation]]"[42]
1949ء   [[ ہاڈیکی یوکوا]] جاپان "for his prediction of the existence of [[ meson]]s on the basis of theoretical work on [[ nuclear forces]]"[43]
1950ء   [[ سی ایف پاول]] برطانیہ "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[44]
1951ء [[ جوہن کوکروفٹ]] برطانیہ "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[45]
  [[ ارنسٹ والٹن]] [[ جمہوریہ آئرستان]]
1952ء   [[ فلکس بلوک]] Switzerland
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[46]
  [[ ایڈوارڑملس پرسل]] امریکا
1953ء   [[ فرٹز زرنیک]] نیدرلینڈز "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the [[ phase contrast microscope]]"[47]
1954ء   [[ میکس بورن]] جرمنی
"for his fundamental research in [[ quantum mechanics]], especially for his statistical interpretation of the [[ wavefunction]]"[48]
  [[ والٹتھر بوتھ]] [[ مغربی جرمنی]] "for the [[ coincidence method]] and his discoveries made therewith"[48]
1955ء   [[ ولس لیمب]] امریکا "for his discoveries concerning the [[ fine structure]] of the hydrogen spectrum"[49]
  [[ پولی کارپ کوشچ]] امریکا "for his precision determination of the [[ magnetic moment]] of the [[ electron]]"[49]
1956ء   [[ جوہن باردین]] امریکا "for their researches on [[ semiconductor]]s and their discovery of the [[ transistor]] effect"[50]
  [[ والٹر ہوایسن براطین]] امریکا
  [[ ولیم شوکلی]] امریکا
1957ء [[ سونگ داو لی]] چین
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called [[ parity laws]] which has led to important discoveries regarding the [[ elementary particles]]"[51]
  [[ چن نینگ یانگ]] چین
1958ء   [[ پاول چینکوف]] سویت اتحاد "for the discovery and the interpretation of the [[ Cherenkov effect]]"[52]
  [[ الوا فرانک]] سویت اتحاد
  [[ اگور ٹام]] سویت اتحاد
1959ء   [[ اون چیمبر لین]] امریکا "for their discovery of the [[ antiproton]]"[53]
  [[ ایملیو جی سگری]] اطالیہ
1960ء File:Donald Glaser 1.jpg [[ ڈونالڈ اے گلیسر]] امریکا "for the invention of the [[ bubble chamber]]"[54]
1961ء   [[ رابرٹ ہوفسٹڈلر]] امریکا "for his pioneering studies of [[ electron scattering]] in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the [[ nucleons]]"[55]
  [[ روڈولف موسباور]] مغربی جرمنی "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of [[ gamma radiation]] and his discovery in this connection of the [[ effect]] which bears his name"[55]
1962ء   [[ لیو لینڈاؤ]] سویت اتحاد "for his pioneering theories for [[ condensed matter]], especially [[ liquid helium]]"[56]
1963ء   [[ یوجین پاول وگنر]] Hungary
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental [[ symmetry principles]]"[57]
  [[ ماریہ جیوپرٹ مئیر]] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning [[ nuclear shell structure]]"[57]
  [[ جے ہنس ڈی ہنسن]] مغربی جرمنی
1964ء   [[ نکولے گناڈیےوچ باسو]] سویت اتحاد "for fundamental work in the field of [[ quantum electronics]], which has led to the construction of [[ oscillator]]s and [[ amplifier]]s based on the [[ maser]]–[[ laser]] principle"[58]
  [[ الیکزینڈر پروکورو]] سویت اتحاد
File:Charles Townes Nobel.jpg [[ چارلس ہارڈ ٹاونس]] امریکا
1965ء [[ رچرڈ فلپ فے مین]] امریکا "for their fundamental work in [[ quantum electrodynamics]] (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[59]
  [[ جولیان سکونگر]] امریکا
  [[ سن اٹیرو ٹومو ناگا]] جاپان
1966ء   [[ الفرڈ کاسٹلر]] فرانس "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[60]
1967ء   [[ ہنس بیتھ]] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of [[ nuclear reaction]]s, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in [[ ستارہ]]s"[61]
1968ء   [[ لیوس والٹلر الوریزز]] امریکا "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of [[ resonance]] states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen [[ bubble chamber]] and data analysis"[62]
1969ء   [[ ماری گیل مین]] امریکا "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[63]
1970ء   [[ ہینس الفوین]] سویڈن "for fundamental work and discoveries in [[ magneto-hydrodynamics]] with fruitful applications in different parts of [[ plasma physics]]"[64]
  [[ لیوس نیل]] فرانس "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning [[ antiferromagnetism]] and [[ ferrimagnetism]] which have led to important applications in [[ solid state physics]]"[64]
1971ء [[ ڈینس گبور]] Hungary – برطانیہ "for his invention and development of the [[ holographic method]]"[65]
1972ء   [[ جوہن باردین]] امریکا "for their jointly developed theory of [[ superconductivity]], usually called the [[ BCS-theory]]"[66]
  [[ لیون کوپر]] امریکا
  [[ جوہن رابرٹ سکریفر]] امریکا
1973ء   [[ لیو اسکائی]] جاپان "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in [[ semiconductor]]s and [[ superconductor]]s, respectively"[67]
  [[ ایور گیور]] امریکا
Template:CSS image crop [[ برائن ڈیوڈ جوزف سن]] برطانیہ "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a [[ supercurrent]] through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the [[ Josephson effect]]"[67]
1974ء [[ مارٹن ریل]] برطانیہ "for their pioneering research in [[ radio astrophysics]]: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the [[ aperture synthesis]] technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of [[ pulsar]]s"[68]
[[ انٹونی ہیوش]] برطانیہ
1975ء   [[ ایگ بوہر]] ڈنمارک "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in [[ atomic nuclei]] and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[69]
  [[ بن روئے مٹل سن]] ڈنمارک
File:Leo James Rainwater.jpg [[ لیو جیمز رین واٹر]] امریکا
1976ء   [[ برٹن رچر]] امریکا "for their pioneering work in the discovery of [[ a heavy elementary particle]] of a new kind"[70]
  [[ سیمیول چاؤ چنگ تنگ]] امریکا
1977ء   [[ فلپ وارن انڈرسن]] امریکا "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[71]
File:Sir Nevill Francis Mott.jpg [[ نیول فرانسس موٹ]] برطانیہ
  [[ جوہن ہیزبروک وان ویک]] امریکا
1978ء   [[ پیوٹر لیونڈیوچ کیپٹسہ]] سویت اتحاد "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of [[ low-temperature physics]]"[72]
  [[ ارنو الن پنزاس]] امریکا "for their discovery of [[ cosmic microwave background radiation]]"[72]
  [[ رابرٹ وڈرو ولسن]] امریکا
1979ء   [[ شیلڈن لی گلاشو]] امریکا "for their contributions to the theory of the [[ unified weak and electromagnetic interaction]] between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the [[ weak neutral current]]"[73]
  [[ ڈاکٹر عبدالسلام]] Pakistan
  [[ سٹیون وینبرگ]] امریکا
1980ء   [[ جیمز واٹسن کرونن]] امریکا "for the discovery of violations of fundamental [[ symmetry principles]] in the decay of [[ neutral K-meson]]s"[74]
  [[ وال لودسن وچ]] امریکا
1981ء   [[ نکولس بلومبرن]] امریکا "for their contribution to the development of [[ laser spectroscopy]]"[75]
  [[ آرتھر لیونارڈ شکالو]] امریکا
  [[ کائی مین بورجی سیگبہن]] سویڈن "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution [[ electron spectroscopy]]"[75]
1982ء [[ کینتھ ج ولسن]] امریکا "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with [[ phase transition]]s"[76]
1983ء [[ سبرامنین چندرشیکھر]] امریکا
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and [[ evolution of the stars]]"[77]
[[ ولیم الفرڈ فاولر]] امریکا "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the [[ nuclear reaction]]s of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[77]
1984ء   [[ کارلو روبیا]] اطالیہ "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field [[ particles W and Z]], communicators of [[ weak interaction]]"[78]
[[ سم ونڈر میر]] نیدرلینڈز
1985ء   [[ کلاوس ون کلٹزنگ]] West جرمنی "for the discovery of the [[ quantized Hall effect]]"[79]
1986ء [[ ارنسٹ رسکا]] مغربی جرمنی "for his fundamental work in [[ electron optics]], and for the design of the first [[ electron microscope]]"[80]
  [[ گرڈ بنگ]] مغربی جرمنی "for their design of the [[ scanning tunneling microscope]]"[80]
  [[ ہنرچ رورر]] سوئٹزرلینڈ
1987ء   [[ جونس جیورج بیڈنورز]] مغربی جرمنی "for their important break-through in the discovery of [[ superconductivity]] in [[ ceramic]] materials"[81]
  [[ کارل ایلکزینڈر میولر]] سوئٹزرلینڈ
1988ء   [[ لیون میکس لیڈر مین]] امریکا "for the [[ نیوٹرینو]] beam method and the demonstration of the [[ doublet]] structure of the [[ lepton]]s through the discovery of the [[ muon neutrino]]"[82]
[[ ملون سکوارٹز]] امریکا
  [[ جیک سٹین برگر]] امریکا
1989ء [[ نورمن فوسٹر رامسے جے آر]] امریکا "for the invention of the [[ separated oscillatory fields]] method and its use in the [[ hydrogen maser]] and other atomic clocks"[83]
[[ ہنس جیورج ڈیہلمٹ]] امریکا "for the development of the [[ ion trap]] technique"[83]
[[ ولف گینگ پاول]] مغربی جرمنی
1990ء [[ جیروم آئیزک فرائڈ مین]] امریکا "for their pioneering investigations concerning [[ deep inelastic scattering]] of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the [[ quark model]] in particle physics"[84]
  [[ ہنری وے کینڈل]] امریکا
[[ رچرڈ ای ٹیلر]] کینیڈا
1991ء   [[ پیری گلز ڈی جینز]] فرانس "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to [[ liquid crystal]]s and [[ polymer]]s"[85]
1992ء   [[ جیرج چارپک]] فرانس/Poland "for his invention and development of [[ particle detector]]s, in particular the [[ multiwire proportional chamber]]"[86]
1993ء [[ رسل الن ہلز]] امریکا "for the discovery of a [[ new type]] of [[ pulsar]], a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of [[ gravitation]]"[87]
  [[ جوزف ہوٹن ٹیلر جے آر]] امریکا
1994ء   [[ برٹرام بروک ہاؤس]] کینیڈا "for the development of [[ neutron spectroscopy]]" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of [[ neutron scattering]] techniques for studies of [[ condensed matter]]"[88]
[[ کلفورڈ گلنوڈ شل]] امریکا "for the development of the [[ neutron diffraction]] technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of [[ neutron scattering]] techniques for studies of [[ condensed matter]]"[88]
1995ء   [[ مارٹن لیوس پیرل]] امریکا "for the discovery of the [[ tau lepton]]" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to [[ lepton]] physics"[89]
  [[ فریڈرک رینز]] امریکا "for the detection of the [[ نیوٹرینو]]" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to [[ lepton]] physics"[89]
1996ء   [[ ڈیوڈ مورس لی]] امریکا "for their discovery of [[ superfluid]]ity in [[ helium-3]]"[90]
  [[ ڈوگلاس ڈی اوشروف]] امریکا
  [[ رابڑت کول مین رچرڈسن]] امریکا
1997ء   [[ صتیون چھو]] امریکا "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[91]
  [[ کلاؤڈ کوہن-ٹناڈجی]] فرانس
  [[ ولیم ڈینیل فلپس]] امریکا
1998ء   [[ رابرٹ بی لاولینگ]] امریکا "for their discovery of a new form of [[ quantum fluid]] with fractionally charged excitations"[92]
  [[ ہورسٹ لوڈلگ سٹورمر]] جرمنی
[[ ڈینیل چی تسی]] امریکا
1999ء   [[ گیرارڈ ٹی ہوفٹ]] نیدرلینڈز "for elucidating the quantum structure of [[ electroweak interaction]]s in physics"[93]
  [[ ماٹینس جے جی ولٹمین]] نیدرلینڈز
2000ء   [[ زورس ایونوچ الفرو]] Russia "for developing [[ semiconductor]] [[ heterostructure]]s used in high-speed- and [[ optoelectronics]]"[94]
[[ ہربرٹ کروئمر]] جرمنی
[[ جیک سینٹ کلئر کلبی]] امریکا "for his part in the invention of the [[ integrated circuit]]"[94]
2001ء [[ ارک الن کورنل]] امریکا "for the achievement of [[ Bose–Einstein condensation]] in dilute gases of [[ alkali]] atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[95]
[[ کارل ایڈون ویمین]] امریکا
  [[ ولف گینگ کٹرلی]] جرمنی
2002ء   [[ رئیمنڈ ڈیوس جے آر]] امریکا "for pioneering contributions to [[ astrophysics]], in particular for the detection of [[ cosmic neutrinos]]"[96]
[[ مساٹوشی کوشیبا]] جاپان
  [[ رککارڈو گیاککونی]] اطالیہ
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of [[ cosmic X-ray source]]s"[96]
2003ء   [[ الیکزی الیکزیوچ ابریکوسو]] روس "for pioneering contributions to the theory of [[ superconductors]] and [[ superfluid]]s"[97]
  [[ وائیٹلی لزاروچ گنزبرگ]] روس
  [[ انتھونی جیمز لگٹ]] برطانیہ
2004ء   [[ ڈیوڈ جے گروس]] امریکا "for the discovery of [[ asymptotic freedom]] in the theory of the [[ strong interaction]]"[98]
[[ ہگ ڈیوڈ پیولٹزر]] امریکا
  [[ فرانک ولزیک]] امریکا
2005ء   [[ روئے جے گلوبر]] امریکا "for his contribution to the quantum theory of [[ optical coherence]]"[99]
  [[ جان ایل ہال]] امریکا "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision [[ spectroscopy]], including the [[ optical frequency comb]] technique"[99]
  [[ تھیوڈر ڈبلیو ہائنچ]] جرمنی
2006ء   [[ جان سی مادر]] امریکا "for their discovery of the [[ blackbody]] form and [[ anisotropy]] of the [[ cosmic microwave background radiation]]"[100]
  [[ جارج ایف سموٹ]] امریکا
2007ء   [[ البرٹ فرٹ]] فرانس "for the discovery of [[ giant magnetoresistance]]"[101]
  [[ پیٹر گرون برگ]] جرمنی
2008ء   [[ مکوٹو کوبایاشی]] جاپان "for the discovery of the origin of the [[ broken symmetry]] which predicts the existence of at least three families of [[ quarks]] in nature"[102]
  [[ توشی ہائڈ مسکوا]] جاپان
  [[ یوچیرو نامبو]] جاپان
"for the discovery of [[ the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry]] in subatomic physics"[102]
2009ء   [[ چارلس کے کاؤ]] Hong Kong
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in [[ fibers]] for [[ optical communication]]"[103]
  [[ ولارڈ ایس بوائل]] کینیڈا
"for the invention of an imaging [[ semiconductor]] circuit – the [[ CCD sensor]]"[103]
  [[ جارج ای سمتھ]] امریکا
2010ء   [[ انڈر گیم]] برطانیہ
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material [[ graphene]]"[104]
  [[ کونسٹاٹن نوسکلو]] روس
2011ء   [[ ساول پرلموتر]] امریکا "for the discovery of the [[ accelerating expansion of the Universe]] through observations of distant [[ supernovae]]"[105]
  [[ برائن پی سیہمڈ]] Australia
  [[ ایڈم ریس]] امریکا
2012ء   [[ سرگ ہروچ]] فرانس "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual [[ quantum]] [[ systems]]."[106]
  [[ ڈیوڈ جے ونلینڈ]] امریکا
2013ء   [[ فرانکیوس انگلرٹ]] Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a [[ mechanism]] that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental [[ particle]], by the [[ ATLAS]] and [[ CMS]] experiments at [[ سرن]]'s [[ Large Hadron Collider]]"[107]
  [[ پیٹر ہگس]] برطانیہ
2014ء [[ اسامو اکاساکی]] جاپان "for the invention of efficient blue [[ light-emitting diodes]] which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"[108]
[[ ہیروشی امانو]] جاپان
  [[ شوجی نکامورا]] جاپان
2015ء   [[ تکاکی کاجیتا]] جاپان "for the discovery of [[ neutrino oscillations]], which shows that neutrinos have mass"[109]
  [[ آرتھر بی مکڈونلڈ]] کینیڈا

حوالہ جاتEdit

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Cite web
  3. 3.0 3.1 Template:Cite web
  4. Template:Cite web
  5. Template:Cite web
  6. Template:Cite web
  7. Template:Cite web
  8. Template:Cite web
  9. Template:Cite web
  10. Template:Cite web
  11. Template:Cite web
  12. Template:Cite web
  13. Template:Cite web
  14. Template:Cite web
  15. Template:Cite web
  16. Template:Cite web
  17. Template:Cite web
  18. Template:Cite web
  19. Template:Cite web
  20. Template:Cite web
  21. Template:Cite web
  22. Template:Cite web
  23. Template:Cite web
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. Template:Cite web
  26. 26.0 26.1 Template:Cite web
  27. Template:Cite web
  28. Template:Cite web
  29. Template:Cite web
  30. Template:Cite web
  31. Template:Cite web
  32. Template:Cite web
  33. 33.0 33.1 Template:Cite web
  34. Template:Cite web
  35. Template:Cite web
  36. Template:Cite web
  37. Template:Cite web
  38. Template:Cite web
  39. Template:Cite web
  40. Template:Cite web
  41. Template:Cite web
  42. Template:Cite web
  43. Template:Cite web
  44. Template:Cite web
  45. Template:Cite web
  46. Template:Cite web
  47. Template:Cite web
  48. 48.0 48.1 Template:Cite web
  49. 49.0 49.1 Template:Cite web
  50. Template:Cite web
  51. Template:Cite web
  52. Template:Cite web
  53. Template:Cite web
  54. Template:Cite web
  55. 55.0 55.1 Template:Cite web
  56. Template:Cite web
  57. 57.0 57.1 Template:Cite web
  58. Template:Cite web
  59. Template:Cite web
  60. Template:Cite web
  61. Template:Cite web
  62. Template:Cite web
  63. Template:Cite web
  64. 64.0 64.1 Template:Cite web
  65. Template:Cite web
  66. Template:Cite web
  67. 67.0 67.1 Template:Cite web
  68. Template:Cite web
  69. Template:Cite web
  70. Template:Cite web
  71. Template:Cite web
  72. 72.0 72.1 Template:Cite web
  73. Template:Cite web
  74. Template:Cite web
  75. 75.0 75.1 Template:Cite web
  76. Template:Cite web
  77. 77.0 77.1 Template:Cite web
  78. Template:Cite web
  79. Template:Cite web
  80. 80.0 80.1 Template:Cite web
  81. Template:Cite web
  82. Template:Cite web
  83. 83.0 83.1 Template:Cite web
  84. Template:Cite web
  85. Template:Cite web
  86. Template:Cite web
  87. Template:Cite web
  88. 88.0 88.1 Template:Cite web
  89. 89.0 89.1 Template:Cite web
  90. Template:Cite web
  91. Template:Cite web
  92. Template:Cite web
  93. Template:Cite web
  94. 94.0 94.1 Template:Cite web
  95. Template:Cite web
  96. 96.0 96.1 Template:Cite web
  97. Template:Cite web
  98. Template:Cite web
  99. 99.0 99.1 Template:Cite web
  100. Template:Cite web
  101. Template:Cite web
  102. 102.0 102.1 Template:Cite web
  103. 103.0 103.1 Template:Cite web
  104. Template:Cite web
  105. Template:Cite web
  106. Template:Cite web
  107. Template:Cite web
  108. Template:Cite web
  109. Template:Cite web