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India, official nutum Republic of India (Bhārat Gaṇarājya), do South Asia reaḱ miat́ dêsôm tana. June 2023 jooṅ re nena do area lekate 7 aḱ maraṅ dêsôm; oḍoḱ saben ko aete laaḱ population an dêsôm tana. 1947 sêrmâ re independence aete nena do world reaḱ saben aete laaḱ population an democracy tana. South re Indian Ocean, southwest re Arabian Sea, southeast re Bay of Bengal menaḱa. West re Pakistan, North paa China, Nepal ar Bhutan, east paa Bangladesh oḍoḱ Myanmar loḱ chirmit́ menaḱa. Indian Ocean ren Sri Lanka, Maldives naeć re menaḱa. India aḱ Andaman Nicobar Island koaḱ do Thailand, Myanmar, Indonesia loḱ maritime Chirmit́ menaḱa.

Modern human ko do Africa aete Indian subcontinent te tapayomutar 55,000 sêrmâ maaṅ rekô hêćoḱ lena. Eoṕ re hunter-gatherer ko leka varying-form-of-isolation re taên taên te enkoaḱ sêpêrmâoḱgen Baṉasa te nen region êsu diverse yena, human-genetic-diversity lekate ma Africa sekar laaḱ yena. 9,000 sêrmâ maaṅ Sindhu-river-basin western kuṭi re settled-life nelnam yena, ena ge tayom mãe mãe te 3000 BCE re Indus-Valley-Civilization baioḱge evolve yena. 1200 BCE loḱ re do, miat́ Indo-European Language Sanskrit aḱ marê Oṛoṅ (Form), northwest aete India re diffuse len taekena. Ena reaḱ Evidence Rigveda reaḱ Hymn kore namoḱa. Resolutely-vigilant-oral-tradition te preserve len Rigveda re India re Hinduism reaḱ Aṅèṉeoṕ record akana. India aḱ northern oḍoḱ western region ko ren Dravidian language ko do supplant yena. 400 BCE loḱ do Hinduism re caste lekate Stratification oḍoḱ Exclusion nelnam yena, oḍoḱ heredity loḱ link banoḱ tan social-order proclaim ê tan Buddhism ar Jainism eoṕ yena. Sêdâe sêdâeaḱ political-consolidation te Ganga gaṛa basin re loose-knit Maurya oḍoḱ Gupta-empire ko emerge yena. Nekoaḱ collective-period do wide-ranging-creativity te pereć lena, mendo êra koaḱ status-decline oḍoḱ untouchability organised-system-of-belief lekate incorporate jan teaḱ te ó ôrôm lena. South-India re, Middle-kingdom ko Southeast-Asia ren kingdom ko paa te Dravidian-language-script ko oḍoḱ religious-culture kokô export ket́a.

Early-medieval-era re, India aḱ southern ar western-coast kore Christianity, Islam, Judaism, ar Zoroastrianism ko establish yena. Central Asia aeten Muslim army ko intermittenly India aḱ north-plain ko attack ê taekena, eventually Delhi Sultanate ko bai bit́ ket́a, oḍoḱ enkate north-India do medieval Islam aḱ cosmopolitan sikuâr (network) loḱkô or mêsâ ket́a. 15th-century re, Vijayanagara-Empire renko south-India re long-lasting-composite-Hindu-culture ko bai ket́a. Punjaṕ re, institutionalised-religion reject ê tan Sikhism ooḱl yena. 1526 re Mughal Empire iâte 2-century relative-peace agu yena, oḍoḱ luminous-architecture reaḱ legacy bagetúê yena. En tayom British East India Company renkoaḱ gradually-expanding-rule otoṅ hujuḱ yena, India dokô colonial-economy ket́a, enloḱ enaaḱ sovereignty ókô consolidate ket́a. British Crown rule 1858 re eoṕ yena. India renko taḱ promise len rights ko do mãe mãe te em yena, mendo technological-change ko introduce yena, oḍoḱ education ar public-life reaḱ modern-idea ko bit́ keṭeć yena. Nonviolent-resistance lagit́ nutuman miat́ pioneering oḍoḱ influential nationalist-movement ooḱl yena, oḍoḱ enage British rule tuúnḍu teaḱ major factor bai yena. 1947 re large-scale gonoć oḍoḱ unprecedented migration hoban loḱ British Indian Empire do barêa independent dominion oḱge partition yena, miat́ do India, Hindu-majority Dominion, oḍoḱ miat́ do Pakistan, Muslim-majority Dominion.

India do 1950 sêrmâ aete miat́ federal-republic leka menaḱa, democratic-parliamentary-system te govern oḱ tana. Nena do miat́ pluralistic, multilingual ar multi-ethnic-society tana. India aḱ population do 1951 sêrmâ re 361 million aete 2022 sêrmâ re 1.4 billion jooṅ laaḱ beṭa yena. En time-frame rege, India aḱ nominal-per-capita-income sêrmâ re 64 US$ aete 2,601 US$ jooṅ beṭa yena, oḍoḱ literacy-rate 16.6% aete 74% jooṅ beṭa yena. 1951 sêrmâ ren miat́ comparatively ringâ-rengeć dêsôm aete, India do naaḱ ãacha tersaoḱ tan major-economy oḍoḱ osaroḱ tan middle-class menaḱ tan information-technology-service ren huṕ akana. India re sapangi plan akan oḍoḱ complete jan extraterrestrial-mission ko menaḱ tan space-programme menaḱa, Indian-movie, music, spiritual-teaching ko do global-culture re increasing-role menaḱa. Increasing-economic-inequality reaḱ gonoṅ em keet́ India reaḱ poverty-rate do substantially adit́ (reduce) akana. Military-expenditure re high-rank menaḱ tan India do nuclear-weapon-state tana. Neighbour ren Pakistan oḍoḱ China loḱ 20th century aete unresolve akan Kashmir reaḱ dispute menaḱ akat́ gea. India sanamaṅ re menaḱ tan socio-economic-challange ko do, gender-inequality, child-malnurition oḍoḱ level-rise oḱ tan air-pollution. 4 biodiversity-hotspot ko menaḱa loḱ te, India aḱ ote do megadiverse gea. India aḱ 21.7% area do bir te aṭet́ akana. Traditionally do tolerance loḱ nel aguoḱ tan India aḱ wildlife do nen Bir ko re ge, oḍoḱ eṭaḱ paa raka akan Habitat ko re ge support akana.

Etymology

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Oxford English Dictionary (third edition 2009) lekate, "India" nen nutum do Classical Latin re South Asia oḍoḱ enaaḱ east ren miat́ uncertain region iíṅgul India aete derive akana. Enleka ge "India" nen nutum reaḱ derivation-source do miat́ tayom miat́ Hellenistic Greek ren India ( Ἰνδία), ancient Greek ren Indos ( Ἰνδός), Old Persian ren Hindush (Achaemenid Empire ren eastern province), oḍoḱ tayomutar do Sanskrit ren enaaḱ cognate Sindhu, chi "gaṛa" aete derive akana, nen “gaṛa” specifically do Indus Gaṛać iíṅgul tana, oḍoḱ implication te, enaaḱ well-settled-southern-basin ó. Ancient Greek ko India ren ko do Indoi (Ἰνδοί) ko meta kô taekena, ena reaḱ translation do “Indus gaṛa ren ko”.

Indian epic poetry oḍoḱ India aḱ Constitution banar re ol akan nutum Bharat (Bhārat; pronunciation: [ˈbʱaːɾət]) do, enaaḱ variation ko loḱ sapangi Indian language kore ol kaji joṅoḱa. Eoṕ sêdâe re North-India lagit́ taêken historical nutum Bharatavarsha aḱ modern-form Bharat do 19th-century tala mala aete India aḱ native nutum lekate popular akana.

Hindustan ([ɦɪndʊˈstaːn]) do 13th-century re popular len taêken India aḱ Middle-Persian nutum, ena Mughal-Empire-period aete saben muli agu joṅo taekena. Hindustan reaḱ meaning re variation taêaken gea, tisiṅaḱ north-India oḍoḱ Pakistan mêsâ keet́aḱ region ó inguloḱ taekena, oḍoḱ goṭa noḱ India ó.

History

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Ancient India

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55,000 sêrmâ maaṅ loḱ do, ayarutar modern-human ko (Homo sapien ko), ako sêdâe evolve len Africa aete Indian subcontinent kô hujuḱ sekaa jan taekena. South Asia ren earliest-known modern-human satareć ko reaḱ back-date do 30,000 sêrmâ maaṅ daradari. 6500 BCE tayom, Mehrgarh oḍoḱ Pakistan aḱ Balochistan ren eṭaḱ site kore, food-corps oḍoḱ animal koaḱ domestication, permanent-structure ko reaḱ banai, oḍoḱ agricultural-surplus-storage reaḱ evidence nelnam yena. Nena ko ge gradually 2500 BCE aete 1900 BCE re Pakistan oḍoḱ western India re flourish len South Asia ren ayarutar urban culture Indus Valley Civilisation oḱge bai tersa yena. Tala re Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, oḍoḱ Kalibangan lekan city ko taêken loḱ, epeṭaḱ lekan subsistence chetan têṅgô len taêken nen civilisation crafts-production oḍoḱ wide-ranging trade re engage len taekena.

2000-500 BCE period re, nen subcontinent ren esu region ko Chalcolithic-culture ko aete Iron-Age-culture paa te transition yena. Hinduism loḱ topolan marêutar scripture Veda ko do, nen period rege compose len taekena, historian ko nena ko analyse keet́ Vedic-culture do Punjab region oḍoḱ upper Gangetic Plain re taekena mente ko argue tat́a. Laaḱpaa historian koaḱ manatiṅ lekate nen period rege Indo-Aryan koaḱ north-west paa aete subcontinent bitâr ten chiminaṅ wave ren migration hoba lena. Priest, warrior, oḍoḱ free-peasant koaḱ hierarchy bai ken, indigenous-people koaḱ banasa do impure gea mente label keet́ akô excluded ken caste system do nen period rege bai bêrêt́ lena. Deccan Plateau reaḱ nen period ren archaeological-evidence te inguloḱ tana chi nentaḱ re political-organisation reaḱ chiefdom-stage taekena mente. South India re, nen period paa te back-date akan maparaṅ sereṅ (megalithic) monument ko te oḍoḱ en daradari ren agriculture, irrigation tank ko, oḍoḱ craft-tradition ko reaḱ satareć ko te sedentary life paa ten Progression inguloḱ tana.

600 BCE naećpaa, late-Vedic-period re, Ganga gaṛa Plain oḍoḱ north-western region ren hupuṛiṅ state oḍoḱ chiefdom ko do, mahayenapada ko menoḱ 16 major oligarchy oḍoḱ monarchy baioḱ ge consolidate jan taekena. Unduṕ jan urbanisation te non-Vedic-religious-movement ko bêrêt́ yena, ena re barêa do independent-religion bai yena. Jainism do ena ren exemplar Mahavira jiit́ len re prominent jan taekena. Gautama Buddha aḱ teaching chetan bit́ akan Buddhism paa te, middle-class bage keet́ saben social-class ren ko or idi len taekena; Buddha aḱ life reaḱ chronicling do India aḱ recorded-history reaḱ eneoṕ re central-role taekena. Urban wealth saaroḱ tan time-period re, nen barêa religion re renunciation ge ideal mente rikâ lena, oḍoḱ en barêa rege long-lasting monastic-tradition establish yena. Politics nele redo, 300 BCE loḱ do, Magadha kingdom ge eṭaḱ state ko annex keet́ baredo reduce keet́ Mauryan Empire bai yena. Nen empire aḱ do far-south bage keet́ goṭa noḱ subcontinent re control taekena mente menoḱ taekena, mendo naaḱ menoḱ tana, core-region ko do maparaṅ autonomous area ko te tannga lena mente. Mauryan king ko Ashoka aḱ militarism banage oḍoḱ Buddha aḱ dhamma reaḱ osar-saniṅ advocacy lagit́ chimin ko nutumana, imin ge nutum empire-building oḍoḱ public-life reaḱ determined Management lagit́ ó menaḱa.

200 BCE oḍoḱ 200 CE tala re, southern-peninsula do, Roman Empire oḍoḱ West ar Southeast Asia loḱ extensive-trade taêken Chera ko, Chola ko, oḍoḱ Pandya dynasty ko rule let́ taekena mente Tamil language reaḱ Sangam literature re uduboḱ tana. North India re, Hinduism iâte family re patriarchal-control agu tala jan te, êra koaḱ subordination laaḱ yena. 4th oḍoḱ 5th century loḱ do, Gupta Empire iâte greater Ganga gaṛa Plain re administration oḍoḱ taxation reaḱ complex-system bai jan taekena; nen system ge tayomaḱ Indian kingdom ko lagit́ model bai yena. Gupta ko subâ re, ritual reaḱ management kaa keet́, devotion chetan bid akan namasaṕ (renewed) Hinduism agu tala eoṕ yena. Nen Namasanaṕ do urban-elite ko patronize let́ sculpture oḍoḱ architecture re reflect yena. Classical Sanskrit Literature ó hara sagen yena, India ren Science, Astronomy, Medicine, oḍoḱ Mathematics ko significantly advance yena.

Medieval India

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600 aete 1200 CE, India aḱ early-medieval-age do, regional kingdom ko oḍoḱ cultural diversity te nutum len taekena. 606 aete 647 CE re Indo-Gangetic Plain goṭa naeć rule ken Kannauj ren Harsha south paa teć expand lekead re, Deccan ren Chalukya ruler taḱaeteć haratiṅ yena. Aćaḱ successor east paa teć expand lekead re Bengal ren Pala king taḱaeteć haratiṅ yena. Chalukya ko south paa teko expand lekead re oḍoḱ saniṅ south ren Pallava ko taḱaeteko haratiṅ yena, oḍoḱ neko ó oḍoḱ laaḱ saniṅ south ren Pandya oḍoḱ Chola ko darom kedkoa. Nen period ren jaan ruler ko ó empire bai keet́ akoaḱ core-region aete laaḱ ote consistantly kakô control daêada. Nen time-period re, non-traditional ruling class ko leka ge, growing agricultural economy lagit́ hora bai re ote amiṅ jan pastoral people ko ó caste society reko accommodate yena. Enate, caste society re regional difference ko nelnam yena.

6th oḍoḱ 7th century re, Tamil language ren ayarutar devotional-hymn ko bai yena. Ena ko goṭa India re imitate yena oḍoḱ enate Hinduism ó resurge yena oḍoḱ subcontinent ren saben modern language ko ó develop yena. India aḱ huṛiṅ maraṅ saben lekan royalty koaḱ iâte, oḍoḱ ako patronise let́ temple ko iâte, economic hub leka ó bai jan capital city ko te esu sangi citizen ko or idi yena. India re oḍoḱ misâ hoban tan urbanisation loḱ epeṭaḱ size ren temple town ko saben muli nelnam yena. 8th oḍoḱ 9th century loḱ do, South India reaḱ culture oḍoḱ political sysem ko tisiṅaḱ Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Brunei, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia oḍoḱ Indonesia re mêsâ jan dêsôm ko te export jan loḱ te ena ko reaḱ epelaṅ Southeast Asia re nel yena. Nen transmission re Indian merchant, scholar, misâ ko do army koaḱ role taekena; ena re Indian seminary ko re basa keet́ Buddhist oḍoḱ Hindu text ko akoaḱ language te translate ê loḱ Southeast Asia ren koaḱ initiative ó taêken gea.

10th century tayom, ãacha-sadom cavalry oḍoḱ ethnicity religion te tolmit́ (unite) akan army ko te Central Asia ren nomadic Muslim clan ko, dao ge dao South Asia aḱ north-western plain ko attack yet́ taekena, ena ko te ge tayom 1206 re Islamic Delhi Sultanate establish yena. En Sultanate te ge goṭa noḱ North India control lena, oḍoḱ ena te ge South India chetan te sangi daô attack hoba lena. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs. 13th century re nen sultanate iâte, daô ge daô Mongol raider ko darom kôl jan te, India save yena West oḍoḱ Central Asia re hoba jan devastation aete, nena ko te ge tayom en region aete nir tan soldier, scholar, mystic, trader, artist, artisan ko chiminaṅ century subcontinent te ko migrate hujuḱ teaḱ hora bai yena, enate ge north re syncretic Indo-Islamic culture bai yena. Sultanate aḱ raid ko te, oḍoḱ weak oḱ tan South India ren regional kingdom ko te indigenous Vijayanagara Empire aḱ hora bai yena. Strong Shaivite tradition otoṅê loḱ, oḍoḱ sultanate aḱ military technology aete bai rakabê loḱ nen empire te goṭa noḱ peninsular India control yena, oḍoḱ tayom do sêpêrmâoḱ ge South India ren society influence yena.

Eteoṕ modern India

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Eteoṕaḱ 16th century re mainly Muslim ruler ko subâ re taêken northern India, oḍoḱ misâ superior mobility oḍoḱ firepower an Central Asian warrior koaḱ nama generation taḱaete haratiṅ yena. Enaaḱ result te bai jan Mughal Empire re, rule subâ jan local society ko eėć do kakô eėć muchât́ yena. Ensati, akô do nama administrative practice ko te oḍoḱ diverse, inclusive ruling elite koaḱ iâtekô balance oḍoḱ pacify jan taekena. Mughal ko, especially Akbar subâ re, tribal bond oḍoḱ Islamic identity bage keet́, Persianised culture te near-divine status menaḱ tan emperor chetan re em len loyalty te, akoaḱ osar saniṅ ote chirmit́ ko unite ket́a. Laaḱpaa revenue do agriculture aete hujuḱ tan, oḍoḱ tax do well-regulated silver-currency te emoḱ ka mente mandate taêken Mughal state aḱ economic policy iâte peasant oḍoḱ artisan ko larger market tekô bolo yena. Goŧa noḱ 17th century re empire maintain let́ relative-peace do India aḱ economic expansion ren miat́ factor leka taekena, enate painting, literary form, textile, oḍoḱ architecture ko laaḱ patronage em yena. Mughal rule imitâ, North oḍoḱ West India re Maratha, Rajput oḍoḱ Sikh lekan namage coherent akan social group ko re, military oḍoḱ governing ambition nelnam yena, ena te ge akô do collaboration te ó adversity te ó recognition oḍoḱ military experience ko nam akit́ ket́a. Mughal rule imitâ expand oḱ tan commerce te South oḍoḱ East India coast re nama commercial oḍoḱ political elite ko nelnam yena. Empire disintegrate oḱ tan loḱ, nen elite ko re ge sangi do akô akôaḱ affair akô tekô control daê taekena.

18th century eteoṕ loḱ do, commercial oḍoḱ political dominance tala ren panaa gaar eėć tersaoḱ tan loḱ, English East India Company mêsâ keet́aḱ Europe aḱ sangi trading company ko patukâm kuṭi (coastal) outpost kokô establish sekaa let́ taekena. Daḱ chetan control, laaḱ resource, laaḱ advance akan military training,technology ko iâte East India Company ren ko tersa tersa military peećkô usâ uduṕ ket́a, ena te Indian elite ren chiminaṅ do akô paa tekô or idi yena; nen company Europe aḱ eṭaḱ company ko sideline keet́ 1765 re Bengal region re control eć namê teaḱ hora bai re, nekan factor ko reaḱ crucial role taekena. Bengal aḱ biti reaḱ oḍoḱ laaḱ access, oḍoḱ en tayomaḱ peeć oḍoḱ army size re lanaaḱ te laaḱpaa India annex baredo subdue ć daê yena.

India aete oḍoḱ do sêdae re sêpêrmâoḱ ge taêken leka manufactured good ko do kaa export oḱ taekena, ena sati, British ko raw material ko supply oḱ taekena. Sangi historian ko do nena ge India aḱ colonial period ren anaṅ mentekô metaḱa. Nen imitâ loḱ do, British parliament iâte akôaḱ economic power curtail jan ko te oḍoḱ sari samanaṅ re do British administration aḱ miat́ tí bai jan ko te, East India Company ren ko adaan aete ge education, social reform, culture mêsâ keet́aḱ non-economic area rekô bolo yena.

Modern India

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Historian koaḱ menatiṅ lekate India reaḱ modern-age do 1848 ar 1885 tala paa re eoṕ lena. 1848 re Lord Dalhousie East India Company ren Governor General lekać appoint jan teaḱ te ge miat́ modern state baái ren essential change ko lagit́ stage bai yena. Ena ko re sovereignty reaḱ consolidation oḍoḱ demarcation, hoo koaḱ surveillance ar citizen koaḱ education ó mêsâ akana. Europe re introduce len aete te laaḱ sêpêrmâ aurioḱ re ge—railway, ur loor (canal) ar Telegraph emanaḱ—technological change ko introduce lena. Mendo, nen time period re ge company lagit́ dissafection ó laaḱ lena oḍoḱ ena te 1857 ren Indian Rebellion uskur yena. Invasive gen British-style social reform, harsh land tax, chiminaṅ landowner oḍoḱ prince ko summary ge treat ket́ ko teaḱ ko mêsâ keet́aḱ diverse resentment ar perception te ajom hara len nen rebellion te do northern oḍoḱ central India ren sangi region ko ituṅ yena oḍoḱ Company rule ren foundation ekela yena. 1858 loḱ re nen rebellion suppress jan re ó, ena te mendo East India Company aḱ leneyaṅ (dissolution) ar British government hotete India aḱ direct administration agu yena. Unitary state oḍoḱ mãe mãe te limited British parliament system proclaim keet́, nen nama ruler ko prince ar ote hasa an land gentry ko kapalomaḱ unrest aeten safeguard leka ko protect ledkôa. Ena tayomaḱ decade ko re, India re public life mãe mãe te nelnam yena, oḍoḱ ena te ge 1885 re Indian National Congress bai bit́ yena.

19th century reaḱ second tara re technology oḍoḱ commercialisation reaḱ ãacha hunujuḱ do economic setback ko te marka lena, oḍoḱ sangi hupuṛiṅ farmer ko do sangin market reaḱ whim koaḱ daê subâ yenakô. Maraṅ-scale ringâ ko reaḱ leneka laaḱ yena, oḍoḱ do, infrastructure development reaḱ risk India ren taxpayer ko chetan re taêken re ó, India ren ko lagit́ esu kom industrial employment generate jan taekena. Salutary effect ko ó taêken gea: especially do nama ge canal ko bai akan Punjab re commercial cropping te, internal consumption lagit́ food production increase yena. Railway network te critical famine relief em yena, goods ko ipidi reaḱ cost adit́ yena, oḍoḱ namage unduṕ akan Indian-owned industry denga yena.

Approximately mit́ million Indian ko serve ken ayaraḱ World War tayom, nama period eoṕ yena. Ena ge do British reform ko te ôrôm len ge, repressive legislation te, India ren koaḱ self-rule lagit́ ten oḍoḱ keṭeć anasi te, Mahatma Gandhi leader oḍoḱ enduring symbol eć bai jan non-co-operation ren nonviolent movement reaḱ eneoṕ ko te ó ge. 1930 ko re, British ko mãe mãe ten legislative reform ko enact ket́a; ena te hoba jan election ko re Indian National Congress daê yena. En tayomaḱ 10 sêrmâ do crisis ko te toḱ lena: World War II re India ren koaḱ mênêsâ, non-co-operation lagit́ Congress aḱ chapanaṕ unuskur, oḍoḱ Muslim nationalism reaḱ pair ranakab. Saben ge 1947 re independence reaḱ hunujuḱ te koṭoṅ jan re ó, India barêa state, India, Pakistan re hanaṭiń jan te temper ó temper yena.

Independent nation lekate India aḱ self-image baioḱ lagit́ do, secular oḍoḱ democratic republic bit́ ken, 1950 re sekaa jan, India aḱ constitution aḱ vital role taekena. London declaration lekate, India ren ko commonwealth reaḱ membership kô retain ket́a, enka te ena ren ayarutar member kô bai yena. 1980 ko re eoṕ len economic liberalisation te,, technical know-how lagit́ Soviet Union loḱaḱ collaboration te, miat́ large urban middle class bai hujuḱ yena,, India do Ote chetan ãachautar growing economic ko loḱ lekaoḱ ge transformer yena,, oḍoḱ India aḱ geopolitical Clout laaḱ yena. Enreó, India do, unyielding ge neloḱ rural,, urban ripingâ te; religious,, caste-related violence te; Maoist koaḱ te inspire akan Naxalite insurgency ko te; Jammu oḍoḱ Kashmir,, Northeast India ren separatism ko te ó shape akana. India aḱ China,, Pakistan loḱ kaa resolve akan ote chirmit́ dispute menaḱa. India aḱ sustained democratic freedom do ote chetan ren nama noḱ dêsôm ko group re unique gea; mendo, daaradaḱ economic success ko menaḱ sante, India ren disadvantage akan ko riningâ aete raa kô teaḱ goal do, sangin re menaḱ akat́ gea.

Geography

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Indo-Australian Plate aḱ miat́ part tan Indian-tectonic-plate chetan re menaḱ tan India do Indian subcontinent aḱ goṭa-noḱ-homoo (bulk) leka menaḱa. India aḱ defining geological process ko do, 75 million sêrmâ maaṅ re, en imitâ southern supercontinent Gondawana aḱ part taêken Indian Plate, seafloor south-west paa te, oḍoḱ tayom ko do south,, south-east paa te udur aguoḱ tan te north-east paa te usâ eoṕ jan re eoṕ lena. Ena ko hoban tan imitâ ge, India aḱ northeast ren maraṅ lekan Tethyan oceanic crust do Eurasian Plate latar re subduct eṭeḱ yena. Earth aḱ convection te hoban taêken en barêa process te, Indian Ocean ó bai yena, oḍoḱ Indian continental crust te tayom Eurasia under-thrust jan te Himalaya buru ó udur rakaṕ yena. Rakaboḱ tan Himalay buru japaḱ rená south re, plate movement te maraṅ lekan cresent-shaped bahni bai yena, tayom do ena ãacha ge gaṛa atu agu let́ sediment te pereć yena, ena te ge naaḱaḱ Indo-Gangetic Plain bai akana. India aḱ original plate do, sediment chetan re ayarutar Delhi Ridge aete south-west paa te bêl akan ancient Aravalli range re nel lena. West re do, eastern bêṉêl Aravallis te koṭoṅ akan Thar Desert menaḱa.

Sareć akan Indian Plate do, marêùtar,, geologically India aḱ most-stable-part part tan peninsular India leka menaḱ akat́a. Ena ge sangin utar do north re Satpura jooṅ oḍoḱ central re Vindhya range jooṅ sartal akana. Ena reaḱ parallel chain ko do west re Gujrat ren Arabian Sea coast aete, east ren Jharkhand aḱ coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau jooṅ bêl akana. South re, sareć akan pensular landmass Deccan Plateau do, west,, east re, Western,, Eastern Ghats menoḱ coastal range te aṭangi akana; en plateau re nen dêsôm aḱ marêutar sereṅ formation ko menaḱa, ena re chiminaṅ do mit́ billion sêrmâ marêa. Neleka bai akan India do, 6° 44′,, 35° 30′ north latitude oḍoḱ 68° 7′,, 97° 25′ east longitude tala re equator aete north re menaḱ. India aḱ coastline do 7,517 kilometer jêlêṅa; nen distance reaḱ 5,423 kilometre do peninsular India rea, oḍoḱ 2,094 kilometer do Andaman,, Nicobar,, Lakshadweep island-chain rea. Indian navy aḱ hydrographic chart ko lekate, mainland coastline re menaḱ teaḱ ko do: 43% gitilan beach ko; 11% cliff ko mêsâ keet́aḱ sereṅan beach ko; oḍoḱ 46% do Mudflat (marshy shore) ko. Substantially India re atun major Himalayburusaṅ (Himalayan-origin) gaṛa ko re Ganga,, Brahmaputra menaḱa, banar ge Bay of Bengal re atu chabaoḱa. Ganga gaṛaaḱ important Tributary ko re Yamuna,, Kosi ko lekaoḱa; sêpêrmâoḱge Tilat́ duṕ duṕ te hoba akan Kosi aḱ extremely-low-gradient te severe bán oḍoḱ gaṛa reaḱ Course change ko hobana. Hić laaḱan Gradient te daḱ kaa bánoḱ major peninsular gaṛa ko re Bay of Bengal re atu chabaoḱ Godavari,, Mahanadi,, Kaveri,, Krishna ko; oḍoḱ Arabian Sea re atu chabaoḱ Narmada,, Tapti ko lekaoḱa. Coastal feature ko re, west India ren Rann of Kutch,, east India ren alluvial hasaan Sunderban delta kin lekaoḱa; ena ren tayomanaḱ do Bangladesh loḱ haṭiṅ akana. India re barea archipelago menaḱa: India aḱ south-west patukâm kuṭi ren coral atoll tan Lakshadweep; oḍoḱ Andaman Honpatukâm ren sengelburu chain tan Andaman Nicobar Island ko.

India aḱ climate do, economically,, culturally pivotal sêtôṅ,, rabaṅdipiliaḱ monsoon ko aágu tan Himalayburu oḍoḱ Thar Desert te strongly influence akana. Himalayburu menaḱ te, Central Asia ren katabatic hoyo ko koṭoṅoḱa; ena te, bulk of Indian subcontinent do, ena loḱ mipidnoḱ latitude ren location ko aete ó urgumlaaḱ gea. June,, October tala re India aḱ laaḱpaa gamadaḱ eém tan daḱpereć south-west ren sêtôṅdipili monsoon hoyo ko or agu re, Thar Desert aḱ crucial role menaḱa. India re predominantly upunea major climatic grouping menaḱa: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, oḍoḱ montane.

1901-2018 tala re, India aḱ temperature do 0.7 °C laaḱ yena. Ena reaḱ cause do India ren Climage change ge mente often menoḱa. Himalaybururataṅgaṛa ko usâ chabaoḱ tan te, Ganga,, Brahmaputra mêsâ keet́aḱ Himalayburuaḱ gaṛa koaḱ anatu rate adversely affect akana. Chiminaṅ naaḱ menaḱ projection ko lekate, nen century chanaba loḱ re, India re daḱriningâ reaḱ leneka oḍoḱ severity do markedly laaḱ akanoḱa. "Climate change reaḱ adverse impact te kaa elaṅoḱ teaḱ" right do, India re fundamental right leka legally recognise akana.

Biodiversity

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India do megadiverse dêsôm tana, nen term do kipilijiit́ (biological diversity) sangêann (high ann) oḍoḱ Hasaùpânaḱ (Enhasaùpânaḱ) jiit́hitâ ko sangê menaḱ tan 17 dêsôm ko lagit́ agujoṅoḱa. India do goṭa Toasaṅhitâ (mammal) ko ren 8.6%,, Oehitâ ko ren 13.7%,, Leéńhitâ (reptile) ko ren 7.9%,, Otedaḱhitâ (amphibians) ko ren 6%,, Hakôhitâ ko ren 12.2%,, oḍoḱ goṭa Bahoḱsińhitâ (flowering plant) ko ren 6% koaḱ Basapai (habitat) tana. Apêa re mit́ India aḱ Sińhitâ (plant species) ko do Enhasaupânaḱ (endemic) ko ge. Otesaêaḱ 34 kipilijiidann hotspot (enhasaùpânaḱ ko ge sangê menaḱ loḱ significant Basapaiànat́ (habitat loss) nelnamoḱ) ko ren upunea do India re ge menaḱa. Official statistics lekate, India aḱ Birànatet́ do 713,789 km², Dêsômòtebêṉêlaḱ 21.71% hobaoḱa. Ena ge, canopy density (Daruhunulsuṕ te umbul akan Birbêṉêl reaḱ proportion) lekaten broad category oḱge honhaṭiń daêoḱa. Daruhuṉulsuṕìnibil (canopy density) 70% aete laaḱann very dense forest do, India Otebêṉêlaḱ 3.02% hobaoḱa. Andaman Island,, Western Ghat,, Northeast India ko ren Singichirmit́òdabir (tropical moist forest) ko re enkan Bir ge predominantly menaḱa.