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Maiden Castle tir folkaykirafa bria ( englavon hill fort ) evlon gu Azilugal, tigisa arte 2.5 km- getalte Dorchester koe Dorset winka koe Engla. Yolt ape tir vey mai-dun trogarn ke savsafa keltafa ava ke geefa Engla, i vey trogarn co sugdalas vas briapa.

Taneafa rawopafa wazdexa va ayafa tegira moe debak tir gelkeraporugalafo karnizxo dem vansas vraday is pieyena tcarma. Moni 1800 AGJ, bak Iyekotugal, debak zo komiduyur aze zo jovleyer. Ralma moni -600 luxeon zo vegeduyur. Remi taneafa nesida tiyir opelaf is entaf debak oltavaf gu jontikara folkaykirafa bria koe Britana, i debak welmaf gu 6.4 decemiray. Moni -450 va zolonapafa divlizera grupeyer edje welma ke budeyena darka riwe zo jonbarayar, zomeson va 19 decemiray numen debak vanpiyir tela logijafa folkaykirafa bria ke Britana is dace Europa kare lana tentura. Millugale trumindeem ke Maiden Castle loeke zo birtayar, nope loplekura va yona isafa migexa isu kelor. Moni -100 kerelera va bria vantenuwer, avplekuson moe ronefa otsa ke debak. In kali icle romafa rekola di zo kereler ugale koe tawavo ke Durotriges keltaf grelt tigir.

Radimi romafa olgalicura va Britana, bak taneafa decemda ke RGJ, Maiden Castle zo nujovleyer voxen romik va sayakafa tigira moe debak rotir dakiyid. Tici IV-eafa decemda, dopewa is notrafa kolna zo vegeduyud. Radimi VI-eafa decemda, briotsa kotote zo emduyur aze remi Mialukugal midunon anton zo malsaveyer.

Mortimer Wheeler rawopik bak 1930-e sanda va taneafa rawopafa kojoxara va Maiden Castle bokayar. Ara joxara gan Niall Sharples lonoelton zo skuyud, noveson va lokiewafa gildara va debak is pakafa dimempara va kideem nekiyin gan slikote koyutarula.

Abdi ralma

Wiray va koak ke Maiden Castle

Abdi vegedura va ralma, gelkeraporugalafo karnizxo dem vansas vraday moe debak al zo exoneyer. Evlon gu -4000 bate taneafe anambe vizuafe tiyir dem toloy kimas kelor. Bat frez vas waljoaks xanton ruldayar. Valey bat dovoraf xesteem, ontine ke mandi tiyir vas anton 17 cm-, batdume bate taneafe anambe ta rojusi fli me zo envayar. Voxon kelor rotir tiyid lecaf, anton solparsason va koak ke anambe gu divefa tegira. Niall Sharples rawopik joxayas va debak bak 1980-e sanda, krupter da wira male bria va vemaf tawaday tiyir kasafi askisiki ta kiblara va tigira ke bate taneakafe anambe. Kevolon, tigison eliwon ice bria, karnizxo male konake decitmetre co zo rowiyir kiren suxara va kelor va batakaf levesidaf afolt kabdunedickiyir, i va afolt divetis keve jadifa kusuca ke patectoy. Koak ke karnizxo gan kerelera va debak is direfa tawamidusa tegira zo relatceyer. Debak banugale me zo nukereleyer, kore tanoya naboxa dem xim ke toloy rumeik klaaf gu tevda ok perda zo kosmayar. Anambe tir tela losavsafa wazdexa ke ayafa tegira moe debak.

Mukot ke gelkeraporugalafo karnizxo dem vraday me tir aftaf isen sino ape tiyid dem konaki fli. Dum naboxa bazesa da Maiden Castle debak tiyir xo ta miga icde awalk, tawoldaxa iayasa poke krimta ok koe taltefa gola iku ronefa obad da wetce kakevexo vanimpaso va korik mal solumapa zo faveyer. Evlara kan olyabeba bazer da anambe moni -3400 zo jovleyer. Tcekotsa kosmayana koe kelor robazed da tegira dikisa va anambe va tizafa tena ve grupeyer.

Bak mon alubdafa edja, pieyena tcarma moe anambe zo exoneyer. Tiyir tawafo juro abrotcafo gu 546 m- dem vokeon toloy kelor solumon ice 19.5 m- wale sint. Jontika tcarma moe naboxa zo renzayad ise tid cugexa namion gu awalkik, voxen larde tcarma ke Maiden Castle moe meka naboxa tigir, kasafa rieta tir da ina va kima wale toloy seg rotir tcalayar numen batcoba va ayafa tegira moe ant bria remi aluboya decemda kaiki vegedura va pieyena tcarma co pebuyur. Moni 1800 AGJ, titi Iyekotugal, bria zo tucuayar aze ta tawamidura zo malsaveyer, voxen sid kalion di zo puskeyer numen debak gire zo jovleyer. Bana jovlesa rekola kali Azilugal jijayar ugale ralma zo vegeduyur. Pieyena tcarma ton kesimi lapteyer isen remi bata rekola kota vegedura moe tcarma zo taruteyer.

Taneafa folkaykirafa bria

Vageefa rojuxa ke Maiden Castle vas balemoya migexa is baroy kelor ruldayad

Folkaykirafa bria bak Gelkef Iyekotugal is titi Azilugal voneweyed, trabe moni toza ke taneafa decitda AGJ. Lazava ke sinafa awira koe Britana is mukot al tiyid atatcen uum. Konaktan kabdunediyid da sina rotir tiyid rojuxo exoneyeno kev olgalicura mal tadavafa Europa, ok vegeduks ke miv olgalicusik, ok ware sayakafa tegira va seltafa vorotca nekina gan laumasa sanelia is xuva ke danesa tawamidura. Felis trakuray mali 1960-e sanda tir da laumasa malsavera va azil va seltafa betara koe Britana jupayar.

Belcetaxo va azil konaklize zo katrisiyid, poke kawot ke vopel iku lut adraf ta iara va iyekot. Rozoltet da moortese dre ape kadayar isen savsaf taneikeem va skapafa is seltafa ravalduga di drasuyud isen roti den warzafa saneliafa lospa deaweyer. Barry Cunliffe rawopik malyedar da vanlaumara ke sanelia dere yordayar.

Va 31 mana folkaykirafa bria koe Dorset winka mon patat ; Sharples rawopik kojoxayas koe Maiden Castle al sazdar da mana bria ta stujera va midun tawayeem adraf gu kiewagira va dodapa zo exoneyer : ralma ke Dorset poke bodaxo vas divatecepe tigiyid. Cugexafa truminda dum kelor ke Maiden Castle bazed da tawayeem zo akleyer numen doda kostujeteson va sint likeyed. Batcoba gan Cunliffe zo zober, i gan Cunliffe kalise da buneyena azekosafa kijara, dum telyona trasiyina aname kolanixo ke Maiden Castle is Danebury, ta rojura va lodaxaf pak ke ralmafa bria zo skuyud : sinafa yorda tiyir kagavera va ruzadesik ba kallanira va tuvel enide ban sin gan poxas rojusik zo wupesiyid. Tokoda dem poxaye trumon kiblayane moe bat toloy debak zo katrisiyid.

Vegeduyuna moni -600 moe tawavofa kima, welma ke taneafa ralma ke Maiden Castle tiyir vas 6.4 decemiray, koanamayana gu tanoy kelor. Inafa bria tiyir pak ke xed moe lentefa datca ke krant ke Winterbone rionda tisa kovoa ke Froma kuksa. Arte taltefa otsa ke xed is vwon ice ontine vas 132 m-, debak ke taneafa ralma soe me tiyir tela lodontinafa uta ke xed. Bria ke Maiden Castle vamoe vemaf tawaday vas mon 40 m- tigir. Truminda ontinafa gu 8.4 m- vas vekoraf kelor is migexa ruldayad. Migexa ape tiyir dem penca kum inta vox anton aname tuvel, rotir woeteson va worasik. Debak reme lenttaltefo kolanixo is jontolafo ronefo kolanixo ape zo rovansayar. Mano jontolafo kolanixo tir tanafo koe folkaykiraf brieem ke Britana. Lazava ke tigira ke jontolaf tuvel me tir aftafa. Niall Sharples rawopik va teca solblira tiaveyer ; mantode rotir konaka tawamidusa doda koe ralma bliyid isen kota va intaf tuvel co galpeyer.

Joxara va Maiden Castle bak 1937

Truminda ke taneafa ralma icle tanon gire di zo vegeduyud : kelor loon zo tualudevayar, malu 1.5 m- kal 7 m-. Baspieks ke bata fabdura vadim migexa zo daykayad. Miledje ronef trumindeem aname kolanixo zo tubirtayar. Mandi is kelor dive toloyo kolanixo zo vegeduyud. Piexo zo malmadayar wale bato kolanixo ise vas rebava dem kalkafa penca ke raporxo tigiso arte 3 km- ruldayar. Rawopafa conyuta ke toza ke Azilugal gan radimif fabdureem jontikote di zo vilayad. Soe doluneson gu vegungaf debak dum Poundbury is Chalbury milsareon, va tegira ke Maiden Castle bak Azilugal romaltrakut. Dioteson male batyon tulanibelcaks, Niall Sharples maltrakur da Maiden Castle ekamon ape zo kereleyer, dem solparsayan seg ke irubaxo is abdaraykaxo. Va abiccoba ke ugafa araya is skapa ke Azilugal grupet isen nope vugote kosmaks ke bane sare koe Maiden Castle, icde tegira moe debak volfakon rozoltet.

Toleafa folkaykirafa bria, tulogijara

Migexa is kelor ke tugijayana toleafa ralma. Zidafa umica tid fruktifa bada.

Ton tozuraf tazuk ke taneaf Azilugal, Maiden Castle ralma me tir burkafa : tiyir tana ke loa decemoya millumafa ralma milugale vegeduyuna koe gola dem re Berkshire winka isu Dorset isu Hampshire isu Wiltshire. Bak mialukaf Azilugal, Maiden Castle zo tugijayar, batinde vanpison tela logijafa folkaykirafa bria ke Britana is tana lozolonafa ke Europa. Moni -450 welma ke Maiden Castle va 19 decemiray male 6.4 artfiyir. Seg tozuron tiyir kimanaf gu tanoyi mandi isu kelor : piexo va ontine vas 2.7 m- zomeyer, dem dambaf kelor. Bata divlizera ke folkaykirafa bria me tir tanafa : vagee Engla konaka folkaykirafa bria zo tulogijayad, kunte jontik folkam jonkaweyes bak taneaf Azilugal, pilkovon koe Dorset winka. Folkaykirafa bria ke Berkshire winka isu Dorset isu Hampshire isu Wiltshire dere zo darkayad vox kota va dalaf robeem don lava vansayar.

Awira ke batyona zolonafa folkaykirafa bria gu tubirtawera ke selt bak Azilugal al zo yofter. Ralma tice vema bazer da irubasikeem ke lanyona folkaykirafa bria loon dam aryona al tuzolonawed, rotir nope geja. Wori enjapa dem wazdexa va vilara is laumara ke yambudafa ok rabafa nela isu iaxa obad da lazava ke betawera tiyir skapafa. Folkaykirafa bria wetce kazaxo rotir tuzolonaweyed. Bata sazda gan tigira ke kelor is jonkafo piexo zo tugodjar. Tire aname ralma ( tulon koe Maiden Castle ) jontikote trasit, slikote ta rojuracka num kre ta ruyera va roti is rictela. Ralmapa jadion tiyid dem zolonafa sanelia : wazdexacka koe Danebury tigir lize likap ke debak al zo joxar. Cunliffe stragar da cugexafa migexa ke Maiden Castle ape bazed da bana ralma tiyir vas ravalduga ontinafa loon dam telyona vegungafa.

Trumindaf kelor koe Maiden Castle

Maiden Castle talton divlizeyer, niedason va kodoplekura va Hog Hill vegungafa denoxa. Toloya bria bam mea tiyid voke rodaf sak tukoanambeyen. Lirk koe krant va laveksara rotir tumusayar. Moi tugijara vas 19 decemiray va tankelorafe anambe, kobavera va trumideem toz tubirtayad. Kruldesa migexa gu 3.5 m- zo tuzegodayar isen ara migexa isu kelor zo loplekuyud. Vakrilgee ralma, balemoya migexa is baroy kelor zo exoneyed, voxen nope guruca ke lentefa koliava ke bria, balemeafa migexa me tir kotrafa numen ant baroya banlize krulded. Miledje ronefo kolanixo gire zo tubirtayar ise va vanlanira va debak tuabrotciayar.

Balemgerotafe dre dofa koe ralmeem ke kotafa Engla koe Maiden Castle kle krulded. Sinaf mukot moe bat debak soe tir melanaf : sinafa welmama vas 2 m² va irubaxo me novecker, acum zolteks al tir da sine ape tiyid olkxe. Tigira ke jontike olkxe tiaver da ralma ta stujera va blotafa vaneksara va vema zo faveyer. Abica wazdexa va kruldera ke mona koe Maiden Castle kaiki malvegedura ke V-eafa decemda AGJ zo trasiyid. Maiden Castle remi Azilugal zo kereleyer isen irubasikeem koe anamkaf kiray bliyir. Porfeon mona ton emacek zo nugrustayad, i ton emacek kot oltavaf gu lumeem, kare warzafa grustara bazesa va laumasa gijarotiuca ke gadesikeem va selt ke Azilugal.

Iyekotafa muka dum orilna is roga is pizauxa evlon gu mialukaf Azilugal moe debak zo trasiyid. Isk dem lizukafa klita ke vopelaf kawot isu lutaf va kruldera ke solumapafa kazara danedir, i va ape getaltufa kazara. Beka iyekot koe Maiden Castle me zo warzeyer, pune warzexa va nyofara koeon krulded. Duganyaf azilaf kawot koe vema zo rotrasir voxen ralma banugale me nutiyir warzexo va azil. Vuga ralma ke Berkshire winka oku Dorset oku Hampshire oku Wiltshire va conyuta ke warzera va azil al razdad. Titi Azilugal, loa tawolda trasiyina koe Maiden Castle tiyid male seg ke Poole Harbour vas 56 km-. Bata solumapafa kaza tir wazdexa va laumasa skedara do yona lospa koe logijafo lizuxo, is va awira ke greltafa pilkoma. Beka Sharples al exoner da tulogijayana ralma dum Maiden Castle me tiyid widava ise batinde me zo rotorigiyid kire slikeke tiyid tikisa va tawamidura is belcetara, pune Cunliffe is Mark Corney rawopaf milexavik isu Andrew Payne va tulogijayana ralma tazukon gu abdiwidavopa pimtad.

Vantenura

Koe Britana jontika folkaykirafa bria bak -50-e sanda ik 50-e sanda ten zo faveyed. Batcoba zo sazdayar da nekira al tiyir laumayasa waltegira do romafo gindaxo, dum kopatectara va tal is awalkikxo is dere vonewera ke yambudikeem. Vonewesa raba va jovlera ke vamoeikeem va forteykirafa ralma gijarotifa gu tawamidura rotir nekiyid. Mana betawera koe Dorset winka tir denafa leon dam koe arak ke Britana, voxen niedara va jovlera va folkaykirafa ralma ke gola is jonkawera ke trumindiskaf barnam tir, bazesa va lamara ke sanelia.

Moni -100 grustayan zovdom ke nudeem ke Maiden Castle vreparlewer isen vreda lovuxon zo inkewed. Miledje taltef lik ke debak zo jovler isen irubaxo koe roneak ke ralma avplekuwer. Dere bak gelkef Azilugal, lana kijasa kobavera mone ronef tuvel zo adoneyed isen irubaxo kaik kolanixo is wal mandi divlizeweyer. Joxara ke Mortimer Wheeler rawopik va konaka mona isu belcetas kelor is seg malsaveyen ta azilnyofara is tanoy awalkikxo zo razdayad. Koe rabaf debak, azilafi puki vas loon 60 kg- koe seg vas 30 m² zo kosmayad : batcoba vas warzera va azil vas mon 200 kg- vadjer. Larde tokoda ke adraf kawot gan lizukafo divoksexo me zo rotiskayar, nope rotrakut da in tiyir vey warzexo dum Weald vagetalte Engla is Kimrua. Maiden Castle mali gelkef Azilugal tiyir tan lozolonaf debak warzes va azil vagee Britana.

Abica wazdexa va kotawara bak Azilugal kali tena ke rekola zo trasiyid numen folit da gubefa nuva ta daykara va alto tiyir bascotara. Joxara ke Wheeler koe awalkikxo ke ronef tuvel va 52 naboxa razdayad, voxen ant kimi ke awalkikxo zo vayayar. Lan seg va naboxa ke 14 xonukeyes olkik razdayar, don lano alto dem tanoy fixuk ke romafo rodjemasiko koe ge. Wheeler va bat kosmaks wetce romafa wazdexa va Maiden Castle remtrakuyur.

Romafa tegira is jovlera va ralma

Romafa olgalicura va Britana bak 43 tozuwer : tawuk ke Vespasianus te levrotira va Atrebates grelt isu Dumnonii isu Durotriges vagerone Britana mali 43 kali 47 divlizer. Zolteson male kosmara va lospa dem xonukeyeso alto koe awalkikxo ke gelkef Azilugal, Mortimer Wheeler rawopik va blisa izva ke titfira ke Maiden Castle kev romafa ervolia al malredur. Sedme in, jopa va debak anamvilayar, lipuson va kot ayik isu rumeik az kalanteyason va ralma nekev truminda. Wori abica rawopafa wazdexa dilfusa va bat siatos ke bifeem krulded, kore tire ralma gan romik zo dilfuyur. Va bada ke intada efe trasickit voxen ina jontikkase gu azilnyofara di zo gesiat isen dalafa wazdexa obasa da romik va trumindeem is rojuxeem fakon remigayad va to atitsura ke tan kolanis tuvel ke ralma kralir. 14 alto tigiso koe awalkikxo va sugda ke xonukera divnediyid voxen va meka wazdexa va awalkera koe ralma krulder. Ronak ke ralma bak icle konaka taneafa sanda ke romafa kerelera wan tiyir tegis, beka jijacek is tuwava ke irubara tid melanafa : jontika romafa stabrega ke I-eafa decemda poke kolanixo is iste ralma zo kosmayad. Maiden Castle wetce romaf sayakaf abduplay ok meelupkaf folk ape zo kereleyer, larde mekar folk koe gola tigir isen kerelera ke romafa ervolia bak tawuk ke Vespasianus moe aryona folkaykirafa bria vagerone Britana zo rabateyer : koe Cadbury koe Somerset winka is Hembury koe Devon winka is Hodd Hill koe Dorset winka.

Debak ke romafa dopewa ke Maiden Castle

Maiden Castle tici I-eafa decemda zo jovleyer ugale Durnovaria ( Dorchester ) va fiuntuca wetce civitas ravalduga ok golafu kelu ke Durotriges grelt artfiyir. Soe bak pereaksat ke 2015 is kosmara va xim ke Duropolis boniaxo ke Azilugal, rawopik trakud da jovlera va ralma rotir tir dikisa va vonewera ke warzaf debak. Sedme Klaudios Ptolemaios savsaf tawavopik sutes bak II-eafa decemda, Dunium tiyir dalafo irubaxo ke Dunotriges grelt. Solve Dunium gu Maiden Castle jontikedje zo pilkomodayar, pune ara toloya ralma ke Hod Hill is Hengistbury gu toloy rotis debak vas Dunium re zo torigid. Dunium ape tiyir vey duno- britanakeltavaf trogarn sugdalas va « ralma ». Moi 367, romakeltafa dopewa koe Maiden Castle koe ronef lik ke ralma zo vegeduyur. Evla gu taljwa kosmayana leve bitcsid koe dopewa zo maltrakuyur. Istefa bonta vas 6 m² tiyir dem koanamasa lupaxa vas 3 m- oltavafa gu tela ke jontika romakeltafa dopewa vagee Engla. Ara toloya kolna pokeon tigiyid : bata rontagentimafa vas 7.9 m- × 5.5 m- dem toloya maxa rotir tiyisa gertikafa vreda, is bana ivamufa rotir tiyisa befoltaxo. Keni vegedura va dopewa, ronef tuvel ke ralma zo tuwarzayar : rotir kono tumtaxo koe bata lupaxa tigiyir.

Vuestexa

  • (en) Cunliffe, Barry (2000), Iron Age Britain, London: B.T. Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-7299-5
  • (en) Payne, Andrew & Corney, Mark & Cunliffe, Barry (2007), The Wessex Hillforts Project: Extensive Survey of Hillfort Interiors in Central Southern England, English Heritage, ISBN 978-1-873592-85-4
  • (en) Sharples, Niall M (1991a), English Heritage Book of Maiden Castle, London: B. T. Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-6083-0
  • (en) Sharples, Niall M (1991b), Maiden Castle: Excavations and Field Survey 1985–86, English Heritage, ISBN 1-85074-273-1
  • (en) Wainwright, G; Cunliffe, Barry (1985), Maiden Castle: excavation, education, entertainment, Antiquity, 59: 97–100
  • (en) Wheeler, Mortimer (1943), Maiden Castle, Dorset, John Johnson for the Society of Antiquaries

Maiden Castle
Ridaf afigasuteks va Maiden Castle ralma
DEBALA
Debala Winterbone St Martin, Dorset, Engla
Britana   Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Maneka OOjs UI icon mapPin-progressive.svg 50° 41′ 40″ L-, 2° 28′ 05″ T-
KIRA
Ord Keltafa ralma
Welma 0.19 km²
IZVA
Zabdura ≈ 600 AGJ
Jovlera ≈ 100 AGJ
Ayafe sare Azilugal
P Parthenon 2.svg  Tuveli icde Izvopa  P Parthenon 2.svg