Wp/ami/Burma

< Wp‎ | amiWp > ami > Burma

Burma(緬甸)

Flag of Myanmar.svg
Flag of Myanmar
緬甸聯邦共和國在亞洲的位置(紅色)

Mientin Nipatatekoan Kapolongan Kitakit (Mientin a sowal:ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတမြန်မာနိုင်ငံ : Kuwaping a sowal:緬甸聯邦共和國,通稱緬甸).[1]

Takaray a sowal(概要)

Itiraay i katimol-Sakawaian a Pecihan-Kanatal (Fransu a sowal:Indochine; Ikiris a sowal: Indochinese Peninsula; Kuwaping a sowal:印度支那半島;中南半島). Ano patatili’aen to  katimol no Sakawaian a kanatanatal i,o katimol-Sakawaian Aciya a Korapaw( Ikiris a sowal:Mainland Southeast Asiahananay; Kuwaping a sowal:東南亞大陸地區),[2] [3] o kacingangan no ninian haw i,o misa’ayaway to riyar i sakawali no katimol-Sakawaian Aciya a Korapaw, isaka’etip misi’ayaway to Indo-Riya a pecihan- kanatak,i katimolay no Congko, ikawaliay no Indo kokacingangan. Mahaop ko Mintin, Tayko, Cienposay, Yienan ato Malaysiya.

O dahadah no sera no polong no kitakit ira ko 67.65 ofda㎢, o saka 40 a katata’ak itini i polong a kitakit i hwkal, itini i katimol-Sakawaian Aciya a Korapaw o sakatos ko katata’ak, o nitahepoan no kilakilangan mahaop ko 50%.[4] O polong no tamdaw ira ko 5,567 ofad ko ka’aloman, saka26 ko rayray hekalay kitakit.[5]

I katimol misi’ayaway to Antaman-Riyar (Andaman Sea;安達曼海), i ka’etip no sakatimol misi’ayaway to Monciyala-Kihaw, o to’edaw no lilis no riyar irako 2831km, makalitosa ko sala’edam konis no polong no kitakit. O stoto i, Naypito(Awkair a tilid:Neipyiṯo; Kuwaping a sowal:奈比多), i’ayaw no 2005 miheca itiraay i satata’angay a tokai Yangkuwang(Mintin a sowal nifalican mitilid: aran-kun mrui) ko syoto.  

Tatapangan no ngangan no kitakit(國家名稱之由來)

Ona ngangan no kitakit hananay tora Miyientin(緬甸) sanay i,ora「Miyien」hananay i,ono niyah pitahidang to tireng no Miyien-Finacadan, nikawrira, sano kuwaping a sowal i,o tadamaraay sanay,orahananay i,o taliyok no niyaro’ a palapalaan.  Orasak,「Miyientin」hananay i, o「tada iraay a palapalan」sanay ko imi nira. Nikawrira, itini I sowal no Miyientin i,o「Miyienma」(Myañma/Myăma;緬馬) hananay ko pitahidang, ano caciyaw i,o Pama(㛧馬/跁馬ဗမာ Băma) hananay.

Yo misiiked to ko kitakit i 1948 miheca, molosifoan a sowal ko sowalno Miyien-Tin,malongangan hananay to no sifo ko ninian. Itiya sato i 1989miheca ono sofitayan a sifo no Miyien-Tin lekal sato o halo no kitakit a ngangan ko nini sato, o kalokitakit no hekal paifaloco’ sa a mifalic a pangangan, nikawrira, ira ho ko o telang ho a ngangan ko pitahidan, patinako han, o Tayko o Pama(㛧馬/跁馬) han nira a mitahidang, onini ko maalay a mitahidang to「เมียนมา Miian-maa;緬馬」.

kaitiraan (地理)

O kaitiraan no Mien-Tin Nipatatekoan Kapolongan Kitakit itiray i saka’amisan no Katimol-Sakawalian Aciya a Korapaw( Ikiris a sowal:Mainland Southeast Asiahananay; Kuwaping a sowal:東南亞大陸地區), malafiyaw ato Congko, Liyawko ato Tayko, isak’etip madado’edo ato Indo , Monciyala akitakit. Ikatimol no sak’etip misi’ayaway to Monciyala-Kihaw, ikatimol misi’ayaw to Antaman-Riyar.

O kakahad no pala ira ko 676,578㎢, itini i Katimol-Sakawalian Aciya a Korapaw o sakakahaday ko pala a kitakit. O sakatimol aca ko misi’ayaway to riyar, sahetoay mataliyokay no tokos, ika’etip o Arakan Lotolotokan(Ikiris a sowal:Arakan Mountains;Kuwaping a sowal:若開山 ano ca阿拉干山), isaka’amis o Simayala Lotolotokan (himālaya, Chomolongma;喜馬拉雅山ano ca 珠穆朗瑪峰) mahifalatay ko faco ningra, i kawali ato katimol no sakawali o takaraway a dahetal ato Tansalin Lotolotokan, isasifo’an i o hadhad.Oay isaka’amisay no Simayala Lotolotokan a Kayciyapo-Poco’ o ka’akawang nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 5881m, o sakakaay ko ’akawang i Miyen-Tin.

O ikakaay a ’alo ira ko Irowati-’Alo(Ikiris a sowal:Irrawaddy River ; Kuwaping a sowal:伊洛瓦底江 ano ca大金沙江), o kato’edaw i, ira ko 2,288km, oni rakatan a pala ira ko 420,934㎢,[14] ira ko Cinton-’Alo (Ikiris a sowal:Chindwin River; Kuwaping a sowal:欽敦江), ira ko Sarwen-’Alo (Ikiris a sowal: Salween; Kuwaping a sowal:薩爾溫江), ira ho ko Sitang-’Alo. Orasaka o tamdaw no Miyen-Tin sahetoay maro’ i salawacan a pala no Irowati-’Alo, tada sakakaay a ’alo no Miyen-Tin ko nini.

O kakarayan no Miyen-Tin i,o fa’edetay a kakarayan, isa’owac no ’alo modo’etay kali’oraday i kaciferangan, i laloma’ no karopaw ma’icangay.

Itini i 22 00 N, 98 00 E, noAsiya ko Burma. Polong no sekalay i 676,578 sq km “saka 40 ko rayray no ngangan. ” “O sekalay no sera i, 653,508 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 23,070 sq km ” Polong i 56,890,418 ko tamdaw.

 
Sakowan (Burma administrative divisions)

sera(土地) Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 19.2%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 48.20%, malo no roma to a sera 32.60%.

siyoto(首都) O [[[Nay Pyi DawRangoon (Yangon仰光)]](奈比多) ko Siyoto.

katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakacecay 4 a romi’ad.

O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Htin Kyaw(碇喬,或譯作丁覺), patirengan a romi’ad i 2016 a miheca(年) saka 3 folad saka 30 a romi’ad.

Kasasilsil no sakowan(行政區劃)

O polong a sakowan no Miyien-Yin a kitakit i,pitoay ko Tata’akay Sakowan (Miyien-Tin a sowal:တိုင်းဒေသကြီး; Ikiris a sowal:Region),ila’eno no nini i, misilsil han ho to pito a Finacadan-Kitakit (Miyien-Tin a sowal: ပြည်နယ်, Ikiris a spwal:State)ato cecay a Patateko’an-Kitakit a Tekedan Sakowan o Naypito.( Miyien-Tin a sowal:နေပြည်တော် ပြည်တောင်စုနယ်မြေ, Ikiris a sowal:Naypyidaw Union Territory). O maro’ay tamdaw tona pitoay a Tata’akay Sakowan ikakaay ko Miyien-Finacadan, oroma sa i,omaro’ay tona pitoay a Finacadan-Kitakit o mamangay a finacadan ko maro’ay.

# ’Amis/Sakowan Miyien Kuwaping Ikiris Dadahal

/km²

Tamdaw

/2008/

patek

1 Ilowati ဧရာဝတီ 伊洛瓦底省 Ayeyarwady Region 35,138 7,330
2 Poko ပဲခူး 勃固省 Bago Region 39,404 5,014
3 Makui မကွေး 馬圭省 Magway Region 44,781 5,464
4 Mantole မန္တလေး 曼德勒省 37,945 6,000
5 Sicie စစ်ကိုင်း 實皆省    Sagaing Region 94,625 5,663
6 Tolitayi တနင်္သာရီ 德林達依省    Tanintharyi Region 43, 343        1,347
7 Yangkuwang ရန်ကုန် 仰光省    Yangon Region 10, 171 5,836
8 Cin ချင်း 欽邦 Chin State 36, 019 541
9 Kocin ကချင် 克欽邦    Kachin State 89, 041 1,327
10 Koyie ကယား 克耶邦    Kayah State 11, 733 247
11 Kolon ကရင် 克倫邦    Kayin State 30, 383 1,553
12 Mon မွန် 孟邦        Mon State 12, 297 2,470
13 Lokay ရခိုင် 若開邦    Rakhine State 36, 778 3,004
14 San ရှမ်း 撣邦        Shan State 155, 801 8,461
- Tekedan Sakowan o Naypito နေပြည်တော် 奈比多聯邦區        Naypyitaw

Rikisi(歷史)

Ira ko ma’oasaway a tilid, i’ayaw no 75 ofad ko mihecaan iraay to itini i Miyien-Tin ko tomirengay a tata’angay a lotong ma’orip itini, ira ho a makera ko Katelangay-Fokelohan Mihecaan a dafong itini, mangalefay ko kaadihay no Fa’elohay-Fokelohan Mihecaan nalacolan, patinako han isa’owacan no Ilowati-’Alo (Ikiris a sowal: Irrawaddy River;Kuwaping a sowal:伊洛瓦底江;大金沙江) a niyaro’ ira a makera ko i’ayaway to 5000 mihecan a nalacolan.

Naikoran no Ikiris a micowat a mikowan i,makalitosa a mipecih o cecay i, o Fafa’eday Miyien-Tin(Miyien-Tin a sowal:အထက်မြန်မာပြည်, a-nya tha;Kuwaping a sowal:上緬甸;真緬甸) ato La’enoay Miyien-Tin(Miyien-Tin a sowal: အောက်မြန်မာပြည်,auk tha; Kuwaping a sowal:下緬甸;外緬甸). Ora kocecay a ratoh, i’ayaw ni Yiesoan to 200 a miheca, micomod ko Piyaw-Finacadan(pyū;驃人) i fafa’ed no Ilowati-’Alo, ci’icel a mikowan to lalan i kasala’ed no Congko ato Indo no malali’acaay tamdaw. 

 
sakacecay riyad a pilo'od no Ikiris to Miyien-Tin (British attack in Burma 1824)

Ikor to 200 miheca, ira a tayni ko Mon-Finacadan i salawacan no Sitan-’Alo, itiya sato i 849 miheca ma’afas no Miyien-Tin Finacadan ko salawacan no Piyaw-’Alo a patireng to Pu-Kan Sakowan(pu.gam).

I 1757 miheca makowan no Mon-Finacadan Hontian Kitakit ko Katimolay Miyien-Tin, nani 1044 miheca tahira i 1287 miheca, nani Pu-Kan Sakowan misatapang ko Honti no Miyien-Finacadan a mipasipapotak a mikowan.

1824-1826 miheca i sakacecay a lalood no Miyien-Tin ato Ikiris, o Ikiris ko pakalowiday. 1852 miheca sakakinatosa a lalood no Miyien-Tin ato Ikiris, matongal ko kakahad no mi’ecoan no Ikiris.1885 miheca sakakinatolo a lalood no Miyien-Tin ato Ikiris,malowid ko Miyien-Tin ha’emin han to no Ikiris a mi’eco ko Miyien-Tin, patatekoen i nikowanan no Ikiris a Indo malocecay no sakowan, malomicongacongay a kitakit no Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep (Commonwealth of Nations;大英國協).

Itiya sato i 1890 miheca tahira i 1947 miheca, o Tan-Pang(撣邦) ato Wa-Pang(佤邦) tatootoor sa malanipa’adingan a kitakit no Ikiris, o Kocin-Pang(克欽邦) ato CinPang(欽邦) misaikedan a mikowan. Ocor han no Ikiris ko Congto no Indo(Ikiris a sowal:Governor-General of India; Kuwaping a sowal:印度總督) ko cacitodong a mikowan to Miyien-Tin.[6] Tahira to i 1937 miheca saka 4 folad saka 1 romi’ad, malaheci ko《Rokec no Indo-Sifo》, miliyas to ko Miyien-Tin to Indo sacecay sato mala Miyien-Tin honpo no Ikiris to picowat i Aciya.

 
Than Shwe 2010-10-11

1942 miheca oya mikeridan ni Ong-San(nifalican tilid no Miyen-Tin:Aung Hcan; Kuwaping a sowal:翁山) aci Ni-Won (nifalican tilid no Miyen-Tin:Ne Win, Kuwaping a sowal:尼溫) a misiikeday a sofitay kamkamen nangra ko sofitay no Dipon, i 1943 miheca micomod a maro’ i Miyen-Tin, 1945 miheca saka 8 folad saka 1 romi’ad, milekal ko Dipon to pikai to Pisiiked-Niyahpikowan, midama a pacakat to sakacemahad no Miyen-Tin kitakit.[7] Yo kalepon sato ko Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal patatiko ko Ikiris tayra i Miyen-Tin, o sofitay ko mikowanay, tona miheca saka 11 folad patireng to pacarcaray a sifo, ci Ong-San ko malafukusoli(副總理), caka halafin macacoli ko laloma’ nona sifo, orasak lasawad sato kona pacarcaray a sifo.[8]

1946 mihheca saka 8 folad patireng haca to sakatosa a pacarcaray sifo,ci Ong-San ko Congli(總理), nikawrira, to cila a miheca i 1947, saka 7 folad saka 19 romi’ad takawen no cima a mipatay ci Ong-San ato aenem a malatapangay no sifo a tamdaw.[9] I 1948 miheca saka 1 folad saka 4 romi’ad malaheci to no Miyen-Tin a miliyas ko Ikiris a Misiied-Niyah pikowan, milekal a patireng to Mien-Tin Nipatatekoan Kapolongan Kitakit(緬甸聯邦共和國), ci So-Roy-Tai( Sao Shwe Thaik;蘇瑞泰) ko sarakatay malacongton.

1962 miheca tahira i 1974 mihecan, afasen ni Ni-Won(尼溫) ko sakowan a ’icel no sifo, oalasawaden ningra ko tatapangan a rikec no kitakit tora kinpo hananay, oaceroren a patireng to「Mien-Tin Kapolongan Misafa’elohay a Iinkay」(Ikiris a sowal:Union Revolutionary Council (of Burma),decdecan a tilid:URC; Kuwaping a sowal:聯邦革命委員會), milalang to sinkiw a faco, misatapang to ko sofitay a miteked a mikowan to kitakit. To ikor to i, ona 「Mien-Tin Kapolongan Misafa’elohay a Iinkay」 falicen to「Mien-Tin Nipatatekoan Siyakai Syuki Nikapolongan Citodongay to Demak no Kitakit a Iinkay」, o「Mien-Tin Kapolongan」sanay a ngangan no kitakit i,falicen to「Mien-Tin.

Siyakai Syuki Nikapolongan Kitakit」, malaheci a mipatireng to dengan cecay aca ko centang a mikowan sanay a faco no sieci, midemak to misa Mien-Tinay a Siyakai Syuki.

 
Ten-Sen (TheinSeinASEAN)

1989 miheca saka 6 folad saka 18 romi’ad oya kakerida no sofitayan a sifo ci Tan-Roy (Than Shwe;丹瑞) falicen ningra koya Ikirisay a tilid「Burma」 to「Myanmar」.

2011 miheca saka 3 folad saka 30 romi’ad malacongtong ci Ten-Sen (Thein Sein; 登盛). 2012 miheca saka 4 folad ska 1 romi’ad ira ko pipatongal a misinkiw to kiing no Pikaikian no kitakit to 45 ko tamdaw, o nikeridan ni Ong-San-Soci (Latin a tilid:Aung San Suu Kyi) a Polong no kitakit a Lekatep no Finawlan( National League for Democracy) pakaala to 43 ko tamdaw akiing, ci Ong-San-Soci matama malakiing.

I 2015 miheca saka 11 folad saka 8 romi’ad midemak ko Mien-Tin to tata’angay a sinkiw to sarakatay to 25 a miheca ko kahalafin, pakaala ko nikeridan ni Ong-San-Soci a Polong no kitakit a Lekatep no Finawlan to kalitosa no kiing, orasaka o cefang to na Ong-San-Soci ko cacitatodong a mipatireng to sifo a matayal to demak no sifo, mapalasawad to ira ko 54 miheca ko kahalafin a pikowan no sofitay a sifo.

I 2021 miheca saka 2 folad saka 1 romi’ad, mifelih ko sofitay sifo, mapalit no sofitay ci Ong-San-Soci ato papinapina na tapang no sifo,[10] maketon ko dingwa,[11] cisowal sa ko palisyangay tilifi no kitakit masamo’ay ko kikai sa maketon ko dingwa sanay,[12] to ikor to ira to ko sowal no sofitay a sifo cecay miheca ko kafafolawan no kitakit, mapalitay to ci Ong-San-Soci to nika raraw nira i 2020 miheaan a sinkiwa sato ko sowal no sofitay a sifo.[13]

Kicai (經濟)

O liomah ko sakakaay a saka’orip no Miyen-Tin, o Lalen a ’Etan no kalotamdaw (per capita disposable income ,GNI) to cecay a mihecaan ira ko 1180 Amirika-Payso, o maomahay a tamdaw mahaop ko 60% no polong a tamdaw no kitakit, o nipalomaan a losay i, ira ko panay, moki, tefos. Oni tahepoan no kilakilangan to pala no kitakit mahaop ko 50%, sahetoay o ma’ikesay( ko’esitay) a kilang ato yumu(柚木).

 
Yangkon a tokai (Yangon downtown at night)

O misanga’ay to lalosidan ira ko miilangay to panay, masongila’ay kilang, mikarkar to kasoling simal, masanga’ to mamangay kikai,ato mikarkar to tadafakeloh.

Tahini to to aniniay a 21 sici, o ’orip no polong a tamdaw no Miyen-Tin, cowa ka samaan ko kacakat pasatatili’en ato ikor no Sakatosa-Lalood i hekal, i raremay ho. O sa’osi no mikakinkiway i,i 1936 miheca o Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit( Gross Domestic Product:GDP ) marawisay to ko 121.97 Amirika-Payso, o Lalen a ’Etan no kalotamdaw (per capita disposable income ,GNI) i,ira ko 776 Amirika-Payso, nikawrira i 2004 miheca saka 11 dolad a sa’osi i, o Lalen a ’Etan no kalotamdaw edeng 356 Amirika-Payso, wataay ko kalowan.

2011 miheca satapang ko Miyen-Tin sifo pateli to tata’angay a payso to sapitpatireng to maamaan a parananan, pateli to 589 ok Amirika-Payso patireng to Towa Tekedan Katayalan(土瓦經濟特區) ato talolongay minato. Imitini mapapadangay ato Tayko a matayal to pinapina ademak, to ikor to i, patosok sa a misanga’ to no nanom a dingki, no simalan dafong ato misongila’ to simal.

O tamdaw ato finacadan(人口和民族)

 
Kolon-Finacadan a fafahiyan wawa (Karen Padaung Girl Portrait)

O polong a tamdaw no Miyen-Tin ira ko 5,000 ofad ko tamdaw, ilaloma’ no nini i,o Miyen-Finacadan mahaop ko 68% ko sa’osi. O roma a mamangay a finacadan ira ko San-Finacadan(9%), ora ko Koren-Finacadan (7%),Lokay-Finacadan(3.5%),Kuwaping-Finacadan (2.5%), Mon-Finacadan (2%), Kocin-Finacadan (1.5%), Koyie-Finacadan 0.75%) ato romaroma a Finacadan (4.5%), o roma sato i,ira ho ko Indo-Tamdaw ato Monkara-Tamdaw (1.25%).

Nikawrira, imatini, cowa ho ka pihaien i rikec no Myien-Tin a sifo to Kuwaping-Tamdaw, Indo-Tamdaw, Monkara-Tmdaw ato Losinya-Tamdaw, caay ka o pilalang aca to Losinya-Tmadaw, patatekoen i Monkara-Tamdaw.

O sowal(語言)

Ono sifoan a sowal i,o Miyien-Tin sowal, oninian a sowal i,o sowal no Miyien-Tin Finacadan a sowal ko nini,o kasasiromaroma a finacadan ilaloma’ no Miyien-Tin ono niyah a sowal ko sakawasowal to romi’ami’ad.

O i kasafaleday a tamdaw i, sahetoay a mafana’ay to sowal no Ikiris. Tadahalafin ko pikowan no sofitay, matiya ko kahalafin o Miyien-Tin Finacadan ko sakakaay,orasaka malalangay ko romaroma a finacadan somowal tono niyah a finacadan a sowal i pitilidan. Onini to ko sakalahedawaw sato koninian a sowal. O nano mikowanan no Tata’akay Ikiris-Hontian kitakit ko Miyien-Tin, nika awa no pitilidan sakacaay ka tenak ko sowal no Ikiris, itini i mikowanan no Ikiris a kitakit o micidekay ko Miyien-Tin a kitakit.

Pitooran (宗教)  

Ira ko 89% a tamdaw no Miyien-Tin mitooray to Sangcopo-Fociyaw (sowal no Pali:Theravāda; Kuwaping a sowal:上座部佛教), nikawrira, ira ho ko 5% a tamdaw pakaso’elinay tono to’asan ho kawas.roma a pitooran ira ko Islam-Pitooran, Kristo-Pitooran, Tinsikiwa-Pitooran ato Indo-Pitooran.

O sakakaay ko Fociyaw o tahapinangan i Miyien-Tin, o Kristo a pitooran itiraay i saka’amis no Miyien-Tin. Itiya ho i’ayaw a miheaan malalang ko roma a pitooran, tona pinapina a mihecaan mitengil to mamang ko sifo to ngiha’ no finawlan, sa ira sato ko pipa’ading to patenak to roma a pitooran ato mitooray. Ano matinitiniay i,tahanini mapa’ekeray ho no sifo ato kalotamdaw ko Islam a pitooran, mangalefay ko pipenec to mitooray to Islam-Pitooran a Losingya a tamdaw, tadaawaay ko pikalotamdaw a pinengngen no sifo.

Tahapinangan a tilid (文獻參考)

[1] Steinberg, David I. The Crises That Are Burma/Myanmar. Burma/Myanmar. Oxford University Press. 2013-09-26. ISBN 978-0-19-998168-7

[2] 薄文澤. 东南亚大陆地区民族的源流与历史分布变化. 東南亞研究. 2006, (06): 82–86.

[3] 李一平. 东南亚岛屿地区先于半岛地区沦为殖民地的原因. 南洋問題研究. 2000, (01): 48–54.

[4] 国家信息. 緬甸駐中國大使館. [2020-12-01]. (原始內容存檔於2021-05-04).

[5] Asian Development Bank–Myanmar Fact Sheet, Retrieved 8 July 2010 (PDF). [2012-02-07]. (原始內容 (PDF)存檔於2018-12-26).

[6] 陳水逢.《東南亞各國史略與現勢》. 台北: 臺灣商務印書館. 1969:252.

[7] 陳水逢. 《東南亞各國史略與現勢》. 台北: 臺灣商務印書館. 1969:254.

[8] 陳水逢. 《東南亞各國史略與現勢》. 台北: 臺灣商務印書館. 1969:155-256.

[9] 陳水逢. 《東南亞各國史略與現勢》. 台北: 臺灣商務印書館. 1969:257-258.

[10] Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. DW | 01.02.2021. DW.COM. [2021-02-01]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-01) (中文(中國大陸)).

[11] 《財經》新媒體. 缅甸军方:实施为期一年的紧急状态. finance.sina.com.cn. 2021-02-01 [2021-02-01]. (原始內容存檔於2021-04-09)

[12] MRTV. www.facebook.com. [2021-02-01]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-22) (中文(簡體)).

[13] 立場報道 | 立場新聞. 立場新聞 Stand News. [2021-02-01]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-12) (英語).

[14] 喻菲. 中国科学家确定雅鲁藏布江等四条国际河流源头. 科學網. 2011-08-22 [2011-08-23].

Pikafitan i Papotal(外部連接)

  • 緬甸概況 - 新華網
  • 緬甸中文網---緬甸第一中文媒體(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • 《世界概況》上有關Burma的條目 (英文)
  • 開放式目錄計劃中和緬甸相關的內容 (英文)
  • 維客旅行上的緬甸(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)(英文)
  • 維基媒體的緬甸地圖集  (英文)
  • OpenStreetMap上有關緬甸的地理資訊
  • 谷歌地圖