Wp/ami/Bulgaria

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Bulgaria(保加利亞)

Takaray a sowal(概要)

Pawciyaliya Kapolongan-Kitakit(Pawciyaliya a sowal:Република България; Latin a tilid:Republika Bŭlgariya; Kuwaping a sowal:保加利亞共和國,通稱保加利亞). O itiraay i katimol no sakawali no Yoropa a Parkan-Pecihan-Kanatal a kitakit. Malafiyaway ato Romaniya, Sayrwiya, Ka’amisay-Maciton , Kitisiya ato Torki, i sakawali misi’ayaway to Kahetinay-Riyar(Ikiris a sowal:Black Sea; Kuwaping a sowal:黑海).

O Sofia(索菲亞) ko Siyoto.katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日).Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakatolo 3 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit anini i ci Roymen Ratifo( Rumen Radev;魯門·雷得夫), patirengan a romi’ad i 2017 a miheca saka 1 folad saka 22 a romi’ad.

 
Hata no Pawciyaliya (Flag of Bulgaria)
 
Kaitiraan (Bulgaria)

Kaitiraan (地理位置)

Itini i 43 00 N, 25 00 E, noYoropi ko Bulgaria(保加利亞).Polong no sekalay i 110,879 sq km “saka 105 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 108,489 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 2,390 sq km Polong i 7,144,653 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地)Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 46.90%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 36.70%, malo no roma to a sera 16.40%.

Rikisi(歷史)

O saka’amis a kaitiraan no Pawciyaliya anini malecad o Sakawali no Mosiya(Latin a sowal:Moesia; Kuwaping a sowal:默西亞)ito’asan ho, roma sa i,o sakatimol no aniniay Pawciyaliya malecad o saka’amis no Soloysi(Pawciyaliya a sowal:Тракия; Torki a sowal:Trakya ; Kuwaping a sowal:色雷斯) ito’asan ho.

O liteng a finacadan no Pawciyaliya i, o Soloysi-Tamdaw(Ikiris a sowal:Thracians ;Latin a sowal:Thraci). I tiya i’ayaw latek iikor no sakacecay miheca naikoranni Yiso, ona pala itini malapecih no Roma-Hotian Kitakit, malalikel to Soloysi-Sakowan ato Mosiya-Sakowan. To ikor to o Pacantin-Hontian Kitakit komidotocay.

Sakacecay a Micowatay Hontian-Kitakit(第一帝國)

Sakaenem sici sa’aloman sa ko tayniay a Slafo-Tamdaw, ato mamang a mikeridan ni Aspaluhe (Pawciyaliya a sowal:Аспарух; Kuwaping a sowal:阿斯巴魯赫) nani ka’amisay lilis no Kohetingay-Riyar ato ka’amisay Kawciyaso maforaw tayra i Misiya , macamamol ato o Tocie ko sowal a Pawciyar-Tamdaw, onini ko lalengawan no Pawciyaliya-Tamdaw.

I aikor ni Yiso 681 miheca, Aspoluko-Kitakit malowid nira ko Honti no Paycantin ci Casitinni sakatosa( Sila a sowal:Ιουστινιανός Β' ο Ρινότμητος;Kuwaping a sowal:查士丁尼二世;

 
Casitinni sakatosa(Solidus of Justinian II, Second Reign, Constantinople, 705 AD, gold - Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Harvard University - DSC01501)

ocimil a ngangan:makelacay ko ngoso a tamdaw:被剜鼻者), matatilid to kakaketonan, malaheci maala ko sakatimol no Tonaw-‘alo ato saka’misay etal no Parkan lotolotokan no Paycantin, patireng to Pawciyaliya-Hontian Kitakit(latek nani 681 tahira i 1018 miheca ). Sanoyanan sa to tolo so’ot ko mihecan o sakakaay a Misiikeday-Hontian kitakit ko Pawciyaliya,o ‘icel no Pawciyaliya ma’edengay mamatoktok ato Paycantin,kinapinapina to sapico’ecoaw to tata’angay niyaro’ no Paycantin ko sofitay no Pawciyaliya.

Onini to ko sakalalood no Paycantin ato Pawciyaliya. I 755 miheca, o saeawa’an no Pawciyaliya ci Cielice mi’eco to Paycatin, malowid no honti no Paycantin ci Cinstantin sakalima(Sila a sowal:Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄;Kuwaping a sowal:君士坦丁五世) ko Pawciyaliya,itiya sato 759 ato 763 miheca tokitok sa mapidah. Itira sato i 767 miheca matatilid to Sakarihaday-Kakaketonan.

889 miheca, o kalali’aca ko lalengatan a miliyaw heca amalalood. 984 miheca, o sawara’an no Pawciyaliya ci Simiang sakacecay(Pawciyaliya a sowal( Pawciyaliya a sowal:Симеон I Велики ; Kuwaping a sowal:西美昂一世)pakalowid to sofitay no Sila. I 913 miheca ona ci Simiang sakacecay patedo sa a milekal a mala Safang(Цар; 沙皇), keriden ningra ko sofitay miraod tangasa i Cinstantinpaw,cowa ho kalalood o patalaw aca, mapatangic ko Pacantin a matatilid to kakaketonan, adihay ko nipafelian no Paycantin a dafong , adihay ho koni afasan a sapakining.

Itira sato i 981 miheca, o honti no Paycantin ci Pasir sakatosa(Sila a sowal:Βασίλειος;Latin a sowal:Basileios; Kuwaping a sowal:巴西爾二世) sapicowataw to Pawciyaliya, malowid no honti no Pawciyaliya ci Samur(Самуил; 薩穆爾) i ngata no Sofiya. I 986 miheca micowat ko honti no Pawciyaliya ci Samur to Tisaliya, toker han no honti no Paycantin ci Pasir sakatosa.

Tahira to i 1072 miheca,o wawa to no wawa no Samur ci Kangstantin-Pocin patedo sa tomireng malahonti, ci Pitoro sakatolo, patokitok ho a mitoker to Paycantin.

Sakatosa a Micowatay Hontian-Kitakit(第二帝國)

1185 miheca,ca Pitoro saka sepat aci Yfan-Asin sakacecay malikaka mikeridan to Pawciyaliya a tamdaw miliyaw

 
Yfan-Asin sakacecay (N. pavlovic assen)

milood, ptireng to dakatosa a Pawciyaliya Hontian-Kitakit. Mitangic to Paycantin i 1187 miheca to pihai to pisiiked no Pawciyaliya. Tahira sato i saka13 sici, cemahad to ko tili’etanan, matongal ko kaahdihay no niyaro’. O honti ci Yfan-Asin sakatosa, isakakaay to ko kacemahd no kitakit, sakakahaday ko pala no kitakit, katimol tahira i Soloysi, isaka’etip ato sakawali tangasa i riyar.

 Yo mapatay to ko honti ci Yfan-Asin sakatosa, malikelon to ko ’icel no kitakit. 1242 miheca, o kakeridan no sofitay no Monko-Hontian kitakit ci Pato hakelong nira ko sofitay mihidefong to pala no Pawciyaliya, I 1258 miheca tekop sato ko Pawciyaliya a kitakit. Oya sa Paycantin midongdong a mi’eco to Pawciyaliya, mi’afas to Anciyarusi-Minato ato Maysaimupoliya-Minato.

Itiya sato i 1277 miheca, o cecay mikapotay a kitakit no Monko oya Cincahan-Kitakit( Ikiris a sowal: Golden Horde; Monko a sowal:Алтан Орд;Altan Ord ;Kuwaping a sowal:欽察汗國) midefong i saka’amis no Pawciyaliya, tona a mihecaan patokeled sa ko Paucantin a mi’eco to Tinofa, nikawrira, malowid. 1330 miheca, malamikotoday a kitakit ko Pawciyaliya no Saywirwiya, nika cakahalafin mapapecihpecih mala pinapina a mamangay kitakit.

O pikowan no micowatay a Otoman-Hontian Kitakit(鄂圖曼帝國統治)

 
1387miheca Kosofo-Lalood (Battle of Kosovo, Adam Stefanović, 1870)

I ikor no Kosofo-Lalood(Saywirwiya a sowal:Косовски бој或Бој на Косову; Kuwaping a sowal:科索沃戰役) I 1389 miheca ato Nikopaw-Lalood [1]( Pawciyaliya a sowal:Битка при Никопол、Bitka pri Nikopol; Torki a sowal:Niğbolu Savaşı )I 1396 miheca, matekop a malahedaw ko Nikisiiked no sakatosa a Pawciyaliya-Hotian Kitakit, malocecay a nikowanan no Otoman-Torki Hotian-Kitakit. Itira to i ikor no saka 19 sici, o nipikerid ni Wasir-Lifusici (Pawciyaliya a sowal:Васил Левски) ta malaliyad heca ko pidemak to sakapisiikedan no Pawciyaliya. Toyanan nornor sato a malikelon ko ’icel no Otoman-Hontian Kitakit, itira to ko pisa’imer no Pawciyaliya a mipaco’ay, tahitkeda to pitoker no Torki safitay a ma’enec, patodeled sa ko Honti no Rosiya a milood to Otoman, mitedal to roray no Slafo-Salikaka saan, ikor tona lalood matatilid to「Polin-kakaketonan」(Toic a sowal:Berliner Kongress)[2] pakaala ko Pawciliya to Niyah-Pikowan, patireng to safatad sanay ho a Misiikeday Pawciyaliya- Hontian-Kitakit [3]( Pawciyaliya a sowal:Царство България; Roma a tilid:Tsarstvo Bulgaria; Kuwaping a sowal:保加利亞王國). Tahira to i 1885 miheca nga’ simsim hato ko matatodongay a tamdaw a mala no niyahan a honti, itini to ka kalaheci no kitakit a malacecay.

Pawciyaliya Hontian-Kitakit a mihecahecaan (保加利亞王國時期)

Ira ko pidama no Rosiya ato Ci’icelay-Kitkitakit tamanga’ay nornor sato ko Pawciyaliya Hontian-Kitakit miliyas to pikowan no Otoman, tangasa i 1908 miheca malahontian kitakit, i ikor no Parkan-Lalood, o Pawciyaliya, Saywirya, Kahetingay-Lotok kitakit, ato Sila cifaloco’ to sapipecihaw to sera no Torki itira i Yoropa.

 
Sofitay no Pawciyaliya i Ka'amisay- Maciton (Bulgarian Macedonians)

Itiya i sarakarakat ho no sakacecay Lalood no Hekal, cifaloco’ ko Pawciyaliya to sapipaco’ay, I 1915 miheca mikapot to Nipatekoan-Kitakit(Toic a sowal:Mittelmächte ;Kuwaping a sowal:同盟國), tangsolsol sa malacafay ato Toic-Hontian kitakit ato Awsyong-Hontian Kitakit mi’eco to Sayrwiya, to ikor micowat ho to Romaniya. Yo miliyas sato ko sofitay no Toic, o sakakaay to ko sofitay no Pawciliya, sanga’ay sa ko aro’ no sofitay no Pawciyaliya tahira i 1918 miheca malepon to kona Sakacecay Hekalay-Lalood.

I sarakarakat ho no Sakatosa Hekalay-Lalood, o Nacui-Toic(Toic a sowal:Nationalsozialistische Deutschland; Kuwaping a sowal:納粹德國;第三帝國) ato Itali Hontian-Kitakit masasowal (Ikiris a sowal:arbitration award; Kuwaping a sowal:維也納仲裁裁決) a midama to Pawciyaliya mi’afas a patikor to Nantopoloka.

1941 miheca saka 3 folad saka 1 romi’ad, ira ko pasitiraay i Toic a Congli no Pawciyaliya ci Pokotan Filofo mipangangan i『Kakaketonan no Toloay Kitakit』(Ikiris a sowal:Tripartite Pact; Kuwaping a sowal:德意日三國同盟條約) to pipaheci a mikapot to「Tokodan-Kitakit」(Ikiris a sowal:Axis power;Toic a sowal:Die Achsenmächte;Kuwaping a sowal:軸心國). Yo milood sato ko Toic to Nanslafo, mipadang ko sofitay no Pawciyaliya to Toic, iikor to no kalaloodan cililam ko Pawciyaliya to kakahaday a pala no Nanslafo-Maciton itira no Sila alalood, pakapi’eco ko Pawciyaliya to Sa’etipay-Seloysi a pala no Sila.

Itira i 1941 miheca saka 12 folad saka 12 romi’ad, mitakaw a mitefad to pakotang ko Dipon Cinco-Minato no Hawai, mitoor a milekal milood to Amirika.

 
itolofu-Mihailofu (Georgi Dimitrov)

Aniniay Rikisi (現代歷史)

Yo malepon sato ko Sakatosa-Lalood no Hekal, mapatatiko a maala koya Satimolan no Topoloka, nikawrira, itiraan i sakowan no Solin a miteli. 1946 miheca palasawad to Sawara’an-Faco no kitakit, patireng to Pawciyaliya Nikapolong-Kitakit (Pawciyaliya a sowal:Народна Pепублика България,Narodna Republika Balgariya;Kuwaping a sowal:保加利亞人民共和國), ci Koawrci-Titolofu-Mihailofu (Pawciyaliya asowal:Георги Димитров Михайлов;Kuwaping a sowal:格奧爾基·迪米特羅夫·米哈伊洛夫) ko sarakatay a malatapang no kitakit.

 Sieci (政治)

O finawlan ko misinkiway to congtong no Pawciyaliya, 5 miheca ko kalacongtonan, manga’ay pararid to kinacecay. O congtong i,o sawara’an no kitakit ato sakakaay kakeridan no sofitay,o mikomoday a tamdaw to Sakarihaday no Kitakit a Pitenglan a Iinkay, ano awawaay ko sapisanga’ to rikec a ’icel, nikawrira ira ko ’icel a patiko to rikec i Pikaykian no Kitakit papiliyaw a masasowal a mifalic toya rikec, o Pikaykian no Kitakit o ’alomanay a pihai no kiing a mifelih toya mipatikoan no congton a rikec ta malaheci ko kapisanga’ tora rikec.

O Pikaykian-Nikapolongan Faco ko Pawciyaliya (Ikiris a sowal:parliamentary republic; Kuwaping a sowal:議會共和制). O Finawlan-Pikaykian(Народно събрание) a faco o Cecayay-Pikaykian-Faco, o polong no kiing ira ko 240 ko tamdaw, sepat ko mihecaan ko kalakiingan.

 
Simiyang-Sakatos (Simeon Borisov Sakskoburggotski (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Simeon II) in 2017)

O cecay a kasafelaw no sieci (centang) pakaala to 4% a satopa no misinkiway nga’ manga’ay mikapot i pikaykian. Ona pikaykian ira ko ’icel to sapisanga’ to rikec no kitakit, mihai to yosang a sakatayal a payso no sifo, milaleko to pisinkiw to congtong,misinkiw ato palasawad to kamaro’an no congli tapang no sifo, milekal to lalood, miketon to sowal to pihai to sofitay tayra i roma akitakit, mihai to kasasowal pakayni to kacacofelan a demak.  

2001 miheca saka 6 folad saka 17 romi’ad a tata’angay a sinkiw, oni keridan ni Simiyang-Sakatos(Pawciyaliya a sowal:Симеон II; Kuwaping a sowal:西美昂二世) a Polong-Kitakit-Tang pakaala to 42.7% a satopa no misinkiway. Ona ci Simiyang-Sakatos o sarikoray a hotnti, namisawad a malahonti o pakalowid to sinkiw a malasawrra’an no kitakit.

1995 miheca saka 12 folad, misinsi to sapicomodaw Yoropa-Lekatep(European Union, EU; 歐盟)[4]. 2004 miheca saka 3 folad saka 29 romi’ad, mikapot ko Pawciyaliya i Saka’amisay- Riyaran a Kakaketonan-Lekatep ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO;北大西洋公約組織). 2006 miheca saka 12 folad, mitoor to sowal no Citodongay to Demak no Yoropa-Lekatep, o kakeridan no Yoropa-Lekatep a kayki mihai to pikapot no Pawciyaliya i 2007 miheca saka 1 folad saka1 romi’ad.[5] Tahira to i 2007 miheca saka 1 folad saka 1 romi’ad laheci sato ko pikapot no Pawciyaliya i Saka’amisay- Riyaran a Kakaketonan-Lekatep ( North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO;北大西洋公約組織).[6]  

Itiya i 1990 miheca saka 7 folad saka7 romi’ad malaheci ko sowal to pipacarcar ho to pidemak to i patay no ciraraway a tamdaw, noyanan to i 1998 miheca saka 12 folad saka12 romi’ad palaheci hananay to a palasawad ko mipatayay a demak to ciraraway a tamdaw.

Kasasilsil no sakowan(行政區劃)

O kakahad no pala no Pawciyaliya i,iraay ko 110,910㎢, o tatapangan a tokai i Sofiya[1] [2](Pawciyaliya a sowal:София,Ronaan tilid:Sofiya ;Kuwaping a sowal:索菲亞) . o polong a tata’angay sakowan(州) ira ko 28 ko sakowan:

# ’Amis/

Sakowan

Pawciyaliya Kuwaping Kakahad/㎢ Tamadaw/

2006

1 Polakoyifkole Област Благоевград 布拉格耶夫格勒州 6,449 364,076
2 Porkos Област Бургас 布爾加斯州 7,748 457,750
3 Somen Област Шумен 舒門州 3,390 205,198
4 Topolici Област Добрич 多布里奇州 4,719 213,325
5 Kapolowo Област Габрово 加布羅沃州 2,023 137,461
6 Haskowo Област Хасково 哈斯科沃州 5,543 307,067
7 Korciyali Област Кърджали 克爾賈利州 3,209 164,019
8 Ciwstentil Област Кюстендил 丘斯滕迪爾州 3,084 163,889
9 Lowici Област Ловеч 洛維奇州 4,128 167,931
10 Montana Област Монтана 蒙塔納州 3,618 183,353
11 Pocarciko Област Пазарджик 帕札爾吉克州 4,459 317,358
12 Pirniko Област Перник 佩爾尼克州 2,390. 156,561
13 Poliwen Област Плевен 普列文州 4,333 320,449
14 Polofutifu Област Пловдив 普羅夫迪夫州 5,973 755,570
15 Lacikole Област Разград 拉茲格勒州 2,637 152,417
16 Posay Област Русе 魯塞州 2,803 278,890
17 Silisto Област Силистра 錫利斯特拉州 2,846 142,000
18 Simoliyang Област Смолян 斯莫梁州 3,193 140,066
19 Sofiya-Si София, 索菲亞市 1,310 1,246,791
20 Sofiya Софийска област 索菲亞州 7,059 262,032
21 Telang Cakola Област Стара Загора 舊扎戈拉州 5,151 388,556
22 Korkowisinto Област Търговище 特爾戈維什特州 2,716 170,200
23 Warna Област Варна 瓦爾納州 3,820 496,768
24 Tata’angay Tornowo Област Велико Търново 大特爾諾沃州 4,662 293,172
25 Witin Област Видин 維丁州 3,032 128,050
26 Folaca Област Враца 弗拉察州 3,621 235,189
27 Yangpor Област Ямбол 揚博爾州 3,335 156,631
28 Seliwen Област Сливен 斯利文州 3,544 218,747

Kaitiraan(地理)

Makalitosaay no Parkan-Lotolotokan(Pawciyaliya a sowal ato Sayrwiya a sowal:Стара планина / Stara Planina;

 
Parkan-Lotolotokan (Balkangebirge Balkan topo de)

Kuwaping巴爾幹山脈)ko Pawciyaliya, isaka’mis i,o Tonaw-’Alo Dafdaf, isakatimol i,o Soloysi-Dasdas. O katimol no saka’etip i, o Lotopi-Lotok, o kolokolol nona lotok o Musala-’apocok(Pawciyaliya a sowal:Мусала, Kuwaping a sowal:穆薩拉峰) nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 2,925m ko ’akawang, o sa’akawangay no Parkan-Pecih Kanatal(Balkans;巴爾幹半島). Pasiwali misi’ayaway to Kohetingay-Riyar(Black Sea; 黑海), o kalala’edan no Pawciyaliya ato Romaniya ko Tonaw ’Alo.

Ono Lafa’efa’ay a so’emetay a Karopaw Kakarayan ko Pawciyaliya a kitakit, isakwaliay a kakarayan masiwaray no Kahetingay Riyar, isaktimol masiwaray no Sifo’ay-Riyar(Ikiris a sowal:Mediterranean Sea; Kuwaping a sowal:地中海)ko kakarayan, ono Sifo'ay-Riyar a kakarayan.

O fa’edet no romi’ad i sakacecay folad itiraay i sifo’ no -2℃ato2℃, i saka7 folad nani 19℃tahira 25℃(tokos10℃). O lalen no ’orad no mihecaan 450 tahira 600mm (i tokos tahiraay i 1300mm).   

Kicai (經濟)

I 1989 miheca yo tatiih to ko kalali’aca to dafong ato Solin(Rosiya a sowal:Союз Советских Социалистических Республик, decdec:СССР; Kuwaping a sowal:蘇維埃社會主義共和國聯盟,簡稱蘇聯), tata’ang ko nikasipon no Pawciyaliya., o lalen no ’orip no tamtamdaw mataefad 40%. Tahira to i 1994 mihecaan nga’ saidahi sato ko kahirahira a katayalan. Nikawrira, nikacaay ka harerek ko pisongila’ a mifalic ko pakayniay i kicai a demak ato nikacaay ho kahinaker ko faco no kinko, 1996 miheca malaliyaw heca ko katatiih no kicai to katayalan.tahira to i 2003 miheca nga’ manga’ay ko katayalan no polong no kitakit.

 
Mikuy hana(Rosa rugosa)

Nano to’asan o maomahay ko Pawciyaliya a kitakit, orasak o mikuy a hana(Rosa rugosa;玫瑰), yuko(Ikiris a sowal:Yogurt; Kuwaping a sowal:優格) ato poto ’epah tadamanga’ay tata’ang ko ngangan i hekal manga’ay ko ‘aca.

O misanga’ay to dafong a demak i, o misonga’ay to kakaenen ato mililecay a tayal, cemahad sanay to ko pisalamaan no lafang a demak. O mikapotay i Paifaloco'ay Kali'aca a Katatelekan no Sifo’ay Yoropa(Central European Free Trade AgreementCEFTA;中歐自由貿易協定).

Pitooran ato Tamdaw (宗教和人口)

O misakristoay ko 65% a tamdaw no Pawciyaliya , ilaloma’ nonini i,mahaop ko 64% o Pawciyaliya So’elinay Kiwkai(Orthodox church ;正教會). 13% o mitooray to Muslin, sahetoay o Pomako tamdaw ato Mamangay-Finacadan no Torki.

Punka (文化)

Tadaadihay ko naikoran no rocok no payrayrag a ma’arw i punka, rikisi ato rocokan, mahaop ko Sroysi tamdaw, Katelang a Sila tamdaw ,Roma a tamdaw, Selafo a tamdaw, Walyangko tamdaw ato Pawciyar tamdaw. Oninian ko kacidafong no Pawciyaliya to kahirahira a lisinan itini i hekal, o tinooy ato mito’eto’an dafong no Soroysi tamdaw, o rocok no radiw ato katelang a nipatirenganno Pawciyar tamdaw.

 
Kaying no Pawciyaliya (Lazarki from Gabra)

O makeraay a satelangay a misanga’an a tada’emin dafong i Waerna tadem no Pawciyaliya, o rikisi nonini dafong miso’edac to 5,000 ko mihecaan.[9] I sifo’an sici o cecay no kahiceraan no Selafo Punka ko Pawciyaliya, o nikahadakan no Silirtilid(Rosiya a sowal:Кирилли́ческий алфави́т或Кири́ллица,falicen a mitilid:Kirilličeskij alfavit或者Kirillica ; Kuwaping a sowal:西里爾字母或斯拉夫字母).

Tahira to i saka 19 sici ato saka 20 sici, o mirocokay to ’ilang no Pawciyaliya ato Ikiris a malatamdaway no Amirika ci Yohani-Wensin-Atanasofo (Ikiris a sowal:John Vincent Atanasoff; Kuwaping a sowal:約翰·文森·阿塔納索夫) o mikapotay a mipasadak to Tinnaw(computer;電腦).

Itini i Pawciyaliya ano sata’ota’ong sa o mminayay, ano miingaing o mihaiyan.[10] O winaan a sowal no Pawciyaliya ko Pawciyaliya a sowal,do’edo’en ko「Eurobarometer report(2006)」a nipasadakan a sowal, o mafana’ay somowal to Ikiris a sowal no Pawciyaliya i,latek ira ko 120 ofad ko tamdaw, mahaop ko 23% no polong a tamdaw no Pawciyaliya.  

Tahapinangan a Tilid (參考文獻)

[1] Kenneth Meyer Setton、Harry W. Hazard. A History of the Crusades: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Univ of Wisconsin Press. 1975年: 第83頁. ISBN 0299066703 (英語).

[2] "Besides Turkey, there were six Great Powers during the late nineteenth century: Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany." Sowards, Steven W. Lecture 10: The Great Powers and the Eastern Question. Twenty-Five Lectures on Modern Balkan History (The Balkans in the Age of Nationalism). [14 February 2015]. (原始內容存檔於2014-10-14).

[3] 6FP NoE 4M in Bulgaria - Sofia Info. [2013-11-24]. (原始內容存檔於2009-03-09

[4] 新華網. 罗马尼亚和保加利亚正式加入欧盟. 中國網. 2007-01-01 [2021-01-24]. (原始內容存檔於2021-01-31) (中文).

[5] 新華網. 罗马尼亚和保加利亚正式加入欧盟. 中國網. 2007-01-01 [2021-01-24]. (原始內容存檔於2021-01-31) (中文).

[6] European Union. European Union. European Union. [2021-01-24]. (原始內容存檔於2021-02-10) (英語).

[7] Editors of Britannica. Sofia. Encyclopædia Britannica. [12 February 2016].

[8] Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia. Britannica Educational Publishing. 2013-06-01. ISBN 9781615309870.

[9] New perspectives on the Varna cemetery (Bulgaria) (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館), By: Higham, Tom; Chapman, John; Slavchev, Vladimir; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Honch, Noah; Yordanov, Yordan; Dimitrova, Branimira; September 1, 2007

[10] “Yes”and“No”Gestures. Learn Bulgarian Easily. (原始內容存檔於2020-02-09).

Pipalafangan Lihad(旅遊資訊)

Itini i WIKI-Nipalalan to pipalafangan a tilid no Pawciyaliya ira ko:

  • Bulgaria - video presentations from Bulgaria Tourism Authority(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • All cities and villages(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • The mountains of Bulgaria
  • Image Gallery of Bulgaria
  • Large Image Gallery of Bulgaria(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • Cars from antiquity to their appearance in Bulgaria

Pikafitan i Papotal(外部連接)

  • CIA
  • 外交部
  • List of current heads of state and government
  • Official governmental site(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • President of The Republic of Bulgaria(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria
  • Chief of State and Cabinet Member