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Bosnia and herzegovina(波士尼亞與赫塞哥維納)

Posiniya ato Hesaykowina(波士尼亞與赫塞哥維納)

 
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Takaray Sowal (概要)

O Posiniya ato Hesaykowina(Posiniya a sowal:Bosna i Hercegovina/Босна и Херцеговина; Holam a sowal:波赫)[1] [2] o itiraay i satimolan no Yoropa, isaka’etip no Parkan-Peci-Kanatal, o lotolotokan ko ’edef no kitakit. O syuto i,o Salayiefo ( Posiniya a sowal:Sarajevo; Holam a sowal:塞拉耶佛).

O nano cecay no enem a mikapotay no itiyaay ho a Nanslafo-Syakaisyuki- Lekatepay- Kapolongan-Kitakit( Sayrwiya-Koroaysiya Latin a Tilid:ocijalistička Federativna Republika Jugoslavija;Maciton a sowal:Социјалистичка Федеративна Република Југославија; Holam a sowal:南斯拉夫社會主義聯邦共和國), ona kitakit toninian i,o malakapotay a Maciton, Sayrwiya, Posiniya ato Hesaykowina,Koroaysiya, Slopakiya ato Momtonikoro a enem kitakit, o syuto i. o Pierkolo, nani 1945 miheca tahira i 1992 miheca ko kairaan nona kitakit.

Itiya 1990 a mihecahecaan, i kalaloodan no Nanslafo a misiiked a patireng to kitakit kona Posiniya ato Hesaykowina, oninian i,o mido’edo’edoan ko「Tayton Kakaketonan」(Dayton Agreement) a mihai ko ha’emin no kitakit o「Misiikeday a Cisalongacay Kitakit」ko Posiniya ato Hesaykowina.

O Pikaikian no Kitakit no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina o sakakaay tarokos no Yoropa Pikaikian ko mikantokay. Itini i tayal no kitakit i,tosaay ko kasasilsil:o cecay i, Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Malekatepay Kitakit(o roma angangan i, Muslin ato Koroaysiya Malekatepay Kitakit); o cecay i, Sayrwiya Finacadan Kapolngan Kitakit[3] (Sayrwiya a sowal: Република Српска; Romaan tilid:Republika Srpska; Holam a sowal:塞族共和國).

2000 miheca, patireng to Polciko Siikeday Etal(Brčko), malecad kono sakowan a ’icel ato yatosaay a kasasilsil, matiya kalatolo sanay to kona kitakit, nikawrira, o kasasilsil no sakowan i,cowa ko pala ko sapiptahidang to kitakit, o Finacadan ko pangangan,o Posiniya Finacadan ato Koroaysiya Finacadan(Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Malekatepay Kitakit), o roma i, Sayrwiya Finacadan(Sayrwiya Finacadan Kapolngan Kitakit).

Rikisi(歷史)

Sarakatay Miheca(早期)

Itiya ho i katelanagan a fokelohan a mihecahecaan iraay to ko tamdaw a maro’ i Pohe Etal, o tahapinangan no nini i,itira i Stolacipatanci-Dihif nalacolan ira to ko 12000 ko mihecaan, o samatelangay itini i kawali no satimolan no Yoropa. O roma sa i, Pohe Etal ma pecoh no Roma Hontian Kitakit i 168 miheca. O satimolan no aniniay a Posiniya ato Hesaykowina o nano cecay a pala no Paycantin(Sawalian Roma Hontian Kitakit).

Itira i saka 6 sici ato saka 7 sici satapang a micomod i Parkan-Pecihkanatal. Toikor to mihecahecaan, malamikotoday a kitakit no kasasiromaroma a kitakit i taliyok ko Posiniya ato Hesaykowina. Tahira to i 1377 miheca nga’ mapatirang ni Tofoltoko-Kotoromannici(Tvrtko Kotromanić) ko masasiikeday a Posiniya Hontian Kitakit, nikawrira, caho ka haneknek ko katomireng nona kitakit, ma’eco tono Otoman Hontian Kitakit i 1463 miheca, mapolong no Otoman ko Posiniya.

Pikowan no Otoman Hontian Kitakit(鄂圖曼帝國統治時期)

O kowang, pitooran ato sa’osi a tamdaw ko pasata ko pikowan no Otoman to Sayrwiya ato Koroaysiya a tamdaw. Misetek ho to sowal, ono Muslim ho a tamdaw manga’ay to a maro’ i fafa’eday no syakai; o maomahay a tamdaw ano mifalic a mitoor to Islam Pitooran malowan ko sata.[4]

O kaemangay a wawa i, paliyasen to wama ato wina, saopen a pakamaro’ i pikonlingan, o mamalasofitay no Otoman, o pifalic ho faloco’ ato harateng mala Tocian a tamdaw. Oya maro’ay tamdaw i mi’ecoan a pala pasatisilen to kasasa'er no 'orip, painien to masasiromaromaay a tongasoc, o mipadangay a mikowan a tamdaw, sofitay ato ciseray painien to ’akawangay a tisil, roma sa i, oya mitooray ho to Kristo a Sayrwiya ato Koroaysiya a tamdaw o la’enoay ko tisil a kalotamdaw, o「Laya」hananay a pangangan.

Kalaloodan i Sakatosa a Lalood(第二次世界大戰時期)

Itiya i kalaloodan i Sakatosa a Lalood no ‘Emin no Kitakit, mapatekop no Tokod Kitakit(Ikiris a sowal:Axis power; Toic a sowal:Die Achsenmächte ; Holam a sowal:軸心國)ko Nanslafo Hontian Kitakit. Yo mipecoh ko Toic,Italy, Syongyali,ato Powciliya, i Nanslafo ira ko mitokeray kasafelaw toya mi’ecoay a kitakit, o kakeridan nona mitokeray kasafelaw ci Yosifo-Poloci-Tito (Silil a sowal:Јосип Броз Тито; Latin a tilid:Josip Broz Tito; Holam a sowal:約瑟普·布羅茲·狄托), keridaen ningra ko Yucitoy (游擊隊/guerrilla) a milood, 1943 miheca pasitira to a mikosang ko Italy i,mihai ko Malekatepay Kitakit(Ikiris a sowal:Allies of World War II;Rosiya asowal:Антигитлеровская коалиция; Holam a sowal:同盟國) to kalakakeridan no Nanslafo mikapot a mitoker a milood,[5] saadihay han to no Malekatepay Kitakit a padama to sapilood a maamaan dafong ko Nanslafo, oya nikeridan ni Tito a Kiwsanto a sifo, mala o’edengan a sifo no Nanslafo.1945 miheca saka 3 folad, patireng to Kapolongan Sifo ko「Mitedalay to Finacadan a Iingkai」, tona mihea saka 11 folad saka 29 romi’ad, patireng to ci Tito tono Kiwsanto tekedan a sifo, o「Nanslafo Lekatepay a Kapolongan no Finawlan Kitakit」han pangangan kona nipatirengan ho a kitakit, 1963 miheca saka 4 folad saka 7 romi’ad, malaheci to fa’elohay a Rikec no Kitakit tora Kinpo hananay, liyawen heca a panganga ko kitakit to「Naslafo Syakaisyuki Lekatepay Kapolongan Kitakit」.Yo kara’iringan no Sa’etipan ato Sawalian kitakit tora「Li’etecay Lalood」a mihecahecan, masasiroma ko pisafaco ni Tito ato Sa’etipay-Yoropa a kitakit, o paitekeday ko katayal, cowa ka pikecec ko sieci, patahtahay somal, cowa ka pikapot to Amirika ko kakeridan a「Saka’amisay Riyaran a Kakaketonan Lekatep」, cowa ka pikapot to Rosiya ko kakeridan a「Huasa Kakaketonan a kapot」(Rosiya a sowal:Организация Варшавского Договора;Holam a sowal:華沙公約組織),mawilih ko pasitira i Indo,Aycipto,Inni ato Latin-Amirika ko pasacefang ni Tito, patireng sa to「Cowa ka pikapot a Lekatep」[6], 120 ko kitakit to mikakpotay toni a Lekatep, malakakeridan nona Lekatep ci Tito.

Itiya i 70 mihecahecaan, mihai ko sifo no Nanslafo to「oya somowaslay to sowal no Sayrwiya-Koroaysiya a mitooray to Muslim」o Muslim a Finacadan han to, onini ko katongal no finacadan no Nanslafo to cecay malaenem sato ko finacadan.

Pisiikedan ato Laloma’ay Lalood (獨立與內戰)

 
Tayton Kakaketonan (DaytonAgreement)

1992 miheca saka 2 folad saka 19 romi’ad mitayal to Kapolongan Pitopa to sakapisiikedaw no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina, mahaop ko 62.8% ko mihaiay to sapisiikiedaw a patireng to niyah a kitakit. Do’edoedo sa i saka 3 folad saka3 romi’ad lakal sato ko Pikaikian no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina to kalaheci a misiiked. I saka 4folad saka 6 romi’ad mihai ko Yoropa Lekatep to pisiiked no「Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit」, tona romi’ad oya osaw to a limaay Sarwiya Niyahsakowan mapapolong a milekal patireng to「Sayrwiya Finacadan a Kapolongan Kitakit」, misiiked to「Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit」,ona matinay a pisiiked no Sayrwiya tangsol sa ma’enec no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina, o lalengatan no laloma’ay lalood no kitakit.

1995 miheca saka 11 folad saka 21 romi’ad masasowal to a matatilid to Sakrahoday a Kaketonan, itini to malepong ko laloma’ay lalood no kitakit,tona lalood ira ko 20 ofad ko mapatayay, 200 ofad ko maforaway.

Aniniay a miheca(現代)

 
o Kakeridan no Mikomoday Rekad :Haris Silajdžić

2006 miheca saka 10 folad saka 1 romi’ad misinkiw to kapolongan a sinkiw.[7] I saka 10 folad saka 18 romi’ad milekal ko citodongay to sinkiw, ci Hakis-Silaycici(Haris Silajdžić) no Posiniya Finacadan, ci Nipoisa-Latomahawici (Nebojša Radmanović) no Sayrwiya Finacadan, ato Celiko-Komusici no Koroaysiya Finacadan ko masinkiway a malakapot no mikowanay. O Pikaikian no Kitakit 42 ko kiing.[8] 2007 miheca saka 2 folad saka 9 romi’ad, o Sa’ayaway Tamdaw no Tapang ci Nikola- Sinpilici milekal to fa’elohay a sifo.[9]

Sieci (政治)

Tatoloay ko tamdaw no Mikomoday Rekad no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina a kitakit, o cecay a finacadan cecay ko tamdaw, malalikel ko Posiniya atamdaw, Sayrwiya tamdaw ato Koroaysiya tamdaw. 4 miheca ko katayalan, tona 4 miheca macacaliw a mala tatapangan nona mikomoday rekad. O mamalatamdaw nona Mikomoday Rekad o nisinkiwan no finawlan, itira i Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit sinkiwen ko Posiniya tamdaw ato Koroaysiya tamdaw, roma sa i,itira i Sayrwiya Kapolongan Kitakit sinkiwen ko Sayrwiya a tamdaw.

O tapang no citodongay to demak no sifo toro’aen ho no Mikomoday Rekad ko ta haien no Pikaikian no Kitakit, ona tapang no citodongay to demak no sifo ko mamitoro’ to mamalakakeridan no kasilsil no demak no sifo.

 
Katayalan Loma' no Mikomoday Rekad (Predsjedništvo BiH)

O Pikaikian Loma’ Posiniya ato Hesaykowina o citodongay to mamisanga’ to rikec no kitakit, tosa ko kasasiroma no Pikaikian, o cecay i,o Finawlan-Pikaikian, 15 ko kiing, o cecay a finacadan nona tolo finacadan ala 5 ko kiing; o roma i, o Niocoran-Pikaikian, o tosa no kalitolo a kiing nani Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit, o cecay no kalitolo a kiing nani Sayrwiya Kapolongan Kitakit.

O Kinpo Pisawkitan no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit ko Sakaay Pisawkitan, sasiwa ko Saypankang mamisawkit, tona sasiwa o sasepat a Saypankang o nisinkiwan no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit, o tatosa a Saypankang o nisinkiwan no Sayrwiya Kapolongan Kitakit, o osaw to tolo a Saypankang o nisinkiwan no Yoropa Nikalatamdaw Pisawkitan( Ikiris a sowal:European Court of Human Rights; ECtHR), o roma sato i, tatiihay a sinkiwen ko tamdaw no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit, anoca o tamdaw ho no fiyaw a kitakit tatiih a sinkiwen no Yoropa Nikalatamdaw Pisawkitan.

Kasasilsil no sakowan(行政區劃)

 
Kasasilsil a Sakowan (Map Bih entities)

Do’edo’en ko ko katatilidan i 1995miheca saka 11 folad saka 21 romi’ad a《Tayton Katatelekan》(Dayton Peace Agreement)[10] ilaloma’ no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit kalitosaan a misilsilan: Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit ato Sayrwiya Kapolongan Kitakit, alamikowanay to pecih no kitakit, ira kono niyah a syoto,sifo, hata, tahapinangan no kitakit, contong ato pikaian. O itiraay I ka’amis no sakawali no Posiniya a Tekedan Porciko(Posiniya asowal:Brčko district;Sayrwiya a sowal:Брчко дистрикт; Koroaysiya a sowal:Brčko district), o Niyah-Sakowan, o Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit ko mikowanay tonini.

Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit:

Sakowan Mikomoday Tapang no Sifo Citodongay Kitakit Faco no Sieci
Sayrwiya Finacadan kitakit Contong no Sayrwiya Kapolongan Kitakit Conli no Sayrwiya Kapolongan Kitakit Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kitakit Contongan Faco
Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit Contong no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit Conli no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kapolongan Kitakit Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kitakit Kapolongan a Faco
Tekedan Porciko Away Away Posiniya ato Hesaykowina Kitakit Misiikeday Sakowan

Palapalan (地理)

O itiraay i satimolan no Yoropa, isaka’etip no Parkan-Peci-Kanatal, o lotolotokan ko ’edef no kitakit. O syuto i,o Salayiefo ( Posiniya a sowal:Sarajevo; Holam a sowal:塞拉耶佛), malafiyaway ato Koroaysiya, Sayrwiya ato Montokoro Kapolongan Kitakit. O lotolotokan ko ’edef no kitakit, mahaop ko 90% a masahefohefongay a pala, palociwa pasi’etip ko Tinala

 
Nimu a tokai i lawacay no riyar (Neum (BiH) - general view)

(Dinara;迪納拉山) o sa’akawangay i Koroaysiya nani tongroh no riyar 728 m ko ka’akawang,[11] [12] malala’ed ato lislisa no riyar no Koroaysiya, katimol no saka’etip o ’apo’apolan ’ongcoy a dahetal; o dafdafa a pala o’edengan i salawacan no ’alo. Sawa ’Alo (cipas no Tonaw ’Alo) o kalala’edan ato Koroaysiya i ka’amis. Misi’ayaway to Atoliya Riyar(Italy a sowal:Mar Adriatico;Holam a sowal:亞得里亞海)i katimolay, nikawrira, ’edengan itira i Nimu(Sayrwiya a sowal: Неум) 20 km ko milislisay i lawac no riyar, o ’edengan kasadakan tara papotal。

Saheto no kitakit o Fala’faay a Karopaw Kakarayan, roma sa i,ikatimol o Fala’efaay a Fa’edet ko kakarayan(Ikiris a sowal: Mediterranean climate; Holam a sowal: 地中海型氣候).

O tata’angay tokai ira ko Salayiefo(Posiniya sowal:Sarajevo;塞拉耶佛), Paniyaloka(Sayrwiya a sowal:Бања Лука;巴尼亞盧卡) , Tocila(Posiniya sowal: Tuzla ato Mostal; Holam a sowal:圖茲拉) ato Mostal(Posiniya sowal:Mostar; Holam a sowal:莫斯塔爾).

Kicai(經濟)

O itiya ho i Nanslafo Kitakit a mihecahecaan, o cecay no saawaay ko maamaan ko Posiniya ato Hesaykowina, yo

 
Toic a Mako (1-DM-Coin-German)

Niyah Pikowan i,ira heca ko kalalood i laloma’ nona kitakit, itira to a malahedaw ko maamaan. Anini sato nornor sa a manga’ay ko katayalan, falicen koya mikececay a Misafacoay a Kicay tara Nipaliwalay a Kicay.

O payso no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina i, o Mako(konvertibilna marka) ko sa’osi, tatinakoan 1:1 ato Toic Mako(Deutsche Mark) ko kali’aca no payso. Na maceror to no Yoropa a Payso(Euro;歐元) oyanan to malinadaw ko kali’aca to payso.

Tamdaw (人口)

I laloma’ no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina, o Posiniko a tamdaw( Posiniya a sowal:Bošnjak ; Holam a sowal:波士尼亞克人) mahaop ko 48% ko tamdaw, o Sayrwiya a Finacadan[13](Sayrwiya a sowal:Срби ; Holam a sowal: 塞爾維亞族) mahaop ko 37.1% ko tamdaw, o Koroaysiya tamdaw mahaop ko 14.3 % ko tamdaw.

 
ToncenCiyaw (Coptic Crucifixion Icon)

pitooran (宗教)

O kasasilsil no pitooran i laloma’ no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina, o Islam Pitooran latek mahaop ko 46%, o Toncen Ciyaw[14](Kirisiya tilid:Ὀρθοδοξία;Slafo tilid:Православиѥ; Holam a sowal:東正教)latek mahaop ko 36%, o Tinsikiw latek mahaop ko 14%, ona toloay pitooran o sakakaay a pitooran no Posiniya ato Hesaykowina no tamtamdaw.

Tahapinangan a Tilid(參考文獻)

[1] 波斯尼亚和黑塞哥维那国家概况. 中華人民共和國外交部. 2019-08 [2020-04-02] (中文(中國大陸))

[2] 波士尼亞與赫塞哥維納. 中華民國外交部. [2020-04-02] (中文(台灣)).

[3] 国家概况 — 中华人民共和国外交部. www.fmprc.gov.cn. [2020-12-17].

[4] Bringa, Tone. Being Muslim the Bosnian Way: Identity and Community in a Central Bosnian Village. Princeton University Press. 1995: 14-18. ISBN 0-691-00175-8.

[5] 李浩維, 族群衝突的理論與實證:以前南斯拉夫聯邦解體為例, 淡江大學歐洲研究所, 2006

[6] NAM Members & Observers - 16th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement. Tehran. 26–31 August 2012 [24 August 2012]. (原始內容存檔於2014-02-08).

[7] 何毅,波赫舉行全國大選 登記選民約275.5萬人,新華網。

[8] 連國輝,王海昉,波赫全國大選最終結果揭曉,新華網>

[9] 連國輝,王海昉,波赫新政府宣誓就職,新華網。

[10] Summary of the Dayton Peace Agreement on Bosnia-Herzegovina. www1.umn.edu. 30 November 1995 [16 January 2016]. (原始內容存檔於2015-10-17).

[11] "Dinara" on Peakbagger.com (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) Retrieved 1 October 2011

[12] Geography of Croatia on Europeaklist (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館) Gives a topographic prominence of 728 based on an elevation of 1,831 m. Retrieved 1 October 2011

[13] 中華人民共和國駐塞爾維亞共和國大使館經濟商務參贊處. 塞尔维亚民族、语言、宗教. [2016-01-16].

[14] 1054 miheca malacinowas ko misakristoay,itiyaay a patireng kona Kasafelaw ni Kyokai.

kakafitingan i Papotal(外部連接)