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Bhutan(不丹)

Putan Hontian Kitakit (不丹王國)

Takaray a sowal (概略) O ila’eday no Congko ato Indo a kitakit, ilaloma’ay no karopaw ko aro’nona kitakit,i sakawaliay a ’apilis no Simalaya a tokos (ཧིམཱལཡ himālaya,喜馬拉雅山脈), isaka’etip madado’edo ato nikowanan no Indo a Sicin

 
Hata no Putan(Flag of Bhutan)

(Latin a tilid:Sikkim) malala’ed ato Nipol, isakatimol madado’edo ato o Monciyala Sakowan(Monciyala a sowal:পশ্চিম বঙ্গ;Ikiris a sowal:West Bengal)no Indo ato Asamu Sakowan(Asamu a sowal:অসম ; Ikiris a sowal:Assam). O syuto ato satata’angay a tokai o Sinpo(Thimphu), itini i sowal no Conngo, o「Cukoyi」hananay a mipangangan ko Putan,o kakeleng, o kangic sanay ko imi. Ora to「Putan」hananay i,o nanitiraay o telang a sowal no Indo「भोट-अन्त」[1] (Fan a sowal:संस्कृता वाक्;Ikiris a sowal:Sanskrit; Kuwaping a sowal:梵語)),o imi nira i, o「Salawacan no Tofan」[2] sanay. Matiya o milingosay to o salawacan i katimol ko katenak no punka no Sicang hato sanay. [3] O finacadan no Putan nano tiraay no to’as a Sicang a tamdaw, o malecaday ko karengawan ato Sicang a Monpa finacadan ko to’as no Putan a tamdaw. Itini i 27 30 N, 90 30 E, no Aciya ko Bhutan.Polong no sekalay i 38,394 sq km “saka 137 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 38,394 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 0 sq km ” Polong i 750,125 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地) Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 13.60%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 85.50%, malo no roma to a sera 0.90%.

siyoto(首都) ko Siyoto.katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日) Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakatosa ko safaw 17 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit(國家) anini i ci Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck(吉格梅·凱薩爾·納姆耶爾·旺楚克), patirengan a romi’ad i 2006 a miheca(年) saka 12 folad saka 14 a romi’ad.

Rikisi (歷史)

Salawacan no Tofan (吐蕃的邊陲)

I saka 8 sici mala o cecay a niyaro’ no Tofan ko Putan, o citodongay a mikowanan o Syiencenyien(宣政院)[4] no Yien-Caw(Monkolu Hontian Kitakit; Mongol Empire;蒙古帝國)[5], tahira to i Cin-Caw[6](Tata’angay Cin Hotian Kitakit;大清帝國) nga’ siiked sato to Niyahpikowan.

Mapahinaker ko aniniay a Putan(奠定現代不丹)

 
Patirengay to Putan Kitakit a Cuka(Shabdrung rubin)

I 1616 miheca , malaheci a mapalacecay no Sicang a tamdaw ci Syacong-awang-lang(Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal) ko Putan, mafana’ amisopsop to tamdaw,orasaka, kinalima a palowid to Kolu Kasafelaw(Pining no Sicang:Gelug ano ca Gelug-pa)sa lahedaw sato ko kamaro’an ngara itini. Syacong-awang-lang ko patomenekay to pala, finacadan ato pitooran no Putan.

Micowat ko Ikiris (英國入侵)

I 1772 miheca, micowat ko Ikiris a tayni,tahira to i 1865 miheca paci’eci han no Ikiris ko Putan a matatilid to「Sincula Kakaketonan Tilid」, ma’enec ko Putan a mikerit to 2000㎢ a sera pafili to Ikiris. 1907 miheca patedo sa ci GCIE(Ugyen Wangchuck;烏顏·旺楚克爵士) a malahonti a patireng to Putan Hontian Kitakit, iaikor ira ko Ikiris a micoker padama. Yo misiiked to Indo Niyahpikowan, milaliw to ko Ikiris, oya sa Putan tado han to no Indo malanoniyah a mikotoday a sakowan.

Malamicongacongay no Indo (印度的附屬國)

Nikawria, i 1910 miheca saka 1 folad matatilid ho ko Ikiris ato Putan to「Punaka Kakaketonan Tilid」, pasetek to macacofelay a demak ato roma a kitakit i,tengilen ko sowal no Ikiris sanay. I 1949 miheca saka8 folad matatilid ko Indo ato Putan to

 
Sarakatay Honti no Putan (Ugyen Wangchuck, 1905)

「tahada’oc ko karihaday ato kalawidan a kakaketonan」, pasetek to macacofelay a demak ato roma a kitakit i,tengilen ko sowal no Indo, o tatapangan no Putan ko Indo, manga’ay pakamaro’ ko Indo to sofitay i Putan.

Aniniay a Putan (現代不丹)

1971 miheca haien ho no Indo nga’ mikapot i Linhoko. To cila a miheca(1972)ci Cikomi-Sinko-Wancuko(Congo a sowal:འཇིགས་མེད་སེང་གེ་དབང་ཕྱུག་; THL:Jigme Singye Wangchuck; Kuwaping a sowal:吉格梅·辛格·旺楚克)mirocok a malahonti, o sakasepat a honti. Tahira to i 2006 miheca, patododen ningra ko wawa mirocok malahonti, o aniniay a honti ci Cikomi-Kaisaer-Namuyier-Wancuko(Congo a sowal:འཇིགས་མེད་གེ་སར་རྣམ་རྒྱལ་དབང་ཕྱུག,THL:Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck ; Kuwaping a sowal:吉格梅·凱薩爾·納姆耶爾·旺楚克)

2008 miheca saka 3 folad saka 24 romi’ad, o sarakatay a pisinkiw to kiing no Misanga’ay to Rikec Pikaikian(Bhutanese National Assembly election), ’aloman ko kasasiromaroma a palikoay, ona sinkiw ko pahinakeran i saka 4 folad tomireng ko sarakatay a nano nisinkiwan a sifo, nikawrira, o honti ko mitatoyay to sakakaay sakowan ’icel. 2013 miheca sakakinatosa a pisinkiw, o Finawlanan Centang( Congo a sowal:མི་སེར་དམངས་གཙོའི་ཚོགས་པ; Kuwaoing a sowal:人民民主黨)paka’alaay to sinkiw, onin i,o sarakatay kafalic no Centang to citodongay to

 
Aniniay Honti (King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (edit))

no sifo.

Sieci(政治)

Milekal ko Honti to ’Edef no Kitakit a Sinkiw (國王宣布舉行大選)

O Pikaikian no kitakit no Putan tosaay ko kasasiroma, o cecay i,o Iinkai no Kitakit(Gyelyong Tshogde); o roma i, o Pilaikian no Finawlan (Gyelyong Tshogdu). Iinkai no Kitakit ira ko 25 ko kiing, ilaloma’ no nini to 20 a kiing o misingkiwan no finawlan, o ma’alaay to singkiw i,toro’en ho no honti ta malaheci ko kalakiing, oninian a kiing tatiihay o mikapotay tono siecian a tamdaw; o Pilaikian no Finawlan a kiing i,sahetoay o nani siecian a tamdaw ko mamalakiing. O mamalakiing nona tosa a Pikaikian no Kitakit i,o malaheciay to ko pitilid i Taikaku ko sa’eli.

I 2006 mheca saka 1 folad saka 18 romi’ad, milekal ko honti ci Cikomi SinKo Wngcuko( Sowal no Cunngo:འཇིགས་མེད་སེང་གེ་དབང་ཕྱུག་; THL:Jigme Singye Wangchuck; Kuwaping a sowal:吉格梅·辛格·旺楚克) tahira to i, 2008 miheca misatapang to

’Edef no Kitakit a Sinkiw, o laheci no sinkiw ko oido’edo’an a patireng tono Pikaikian Faco a kitakit.2007 miheca Fafa'eday Pikaikian, 48 ko masadakay to sinkiw a tamdaw, 20 ko mama’ala malakiing.

Sarakatay o Finawlan ko mitopaay a sinkiw(首次直接民選)

Tahira sato i 2008 miheca mitayal to sarakatay nano kairaan no rikisi no Putan a Fafa'eday Pikaikian,o finawlan to ko mamitopa,adihay ko masasiromaay a centan a pasadak to mamalakiing,nikalahecian nona sinkiw i,mapatireng ko sarakatay a o misinkiwan a kiiing ko mamisanga’ to sifo,[7] mapalahedaw kono Sawara'an Kitaki a Faco. Ano o hogtihongti ko Sarawa’an no kitakit i, o Citodongay to Tayal no kitakit i,o Congli ato Tapang no Kasasiromaroma no Katayaln no Sifo, o Pikaikian to ko misanga’ay to rikec. Tona sinkiw i,oya miingiday to salawinawina no hongti a siecian a kasafelaw o 「Paparahoday a pacemahad to Putan a Centang」(Druk Phuensum Tshogpa;不丹和平與繁榮黨) ko pakalowiday to romaroma a centang, 47 ko mama’ala to singkiw ma’ala nona centang ko 45 ko kiing.

kacacofelan a demak (外交)

Imatini ira ko 54 a kitakit ko kacacofelan a demak no Putan. Mafaker no Indo ko tayal, orasak, ano sapipacacofelaw to

 
mapaforaway a tamdaw no Nipol (Lotshampa refugees in Beldangi Camp)

a kitakit ko Putan miwawanik ho ko Putan to pifafaker no Indo. Onini ko sakaca ka cacofel ato Limaay a Maraliday a Lici no Linhoko, o itiraay sa i Indo a matayalay ko mitokeleday to tayal pakaini ato Putan.

I 2012 miheca saka 6 folad saka 21 romi’ad,malalitemoh i Liyielonoylu(Potawya a ssowal:Rio de Janeiro)Tokai no Pasi a masasowal ko Congli no Congko ato Sosyang no Putan ci Cikomi Tinli, pasowal sa ko Congli no Congko ci Wenciyapaw: o Congko misasidangay to fiyafiyaw, itini pahinaker i「limaay lekakawa no sakarihaday」a mangalay a patireng to so’elinay a kacacofelan a demak ato Putan, ta nalikay a pahapinang a mifakekiw to kalala’edan no kitakit, manga’ay to ko kalawidang.[8]

O Putan ato Indo tada kodefetay ko kakakafit nona tosa a kitakit. O pasipapotalay a tayal no Putan o Indo ko misetekay to soal, ira ko sofitay no Indo a maro’ i Putan. 

I 1990 miheca mitayal to「misolac to finacadan」sanay a demak,laplapen ko maro’ay i Putan a Locang Finacadan, ona Locang a Finacadan o teloc no nanoto’asan ho maro’ay to itini i Putan a Nipol( Ikiris a sowal:Nepali; Kuwaping a sowal:尼泊爾語為) tamdaw, latek ira ko 24 ofad ko tamdaw.

Kicai (經濟)

Itini i polong a akitakit o cecaya a「Cowa ho ka Cemahad a Kitakit」(Ikiris a sowal:Least developed country,decdecay a tililid:LDC、LDCs; Kuwaping a sowal:最低度開發國家或未開發國家). Oninian i, itiyaay i 1971 miheca a misetek to tilid ko Linhoko:

1.o lalen a ‘etan no kalotamdaw to cecay a miheca 100 kono Amirika a payso.

 
Pilafinan no Lafang (Taj Tashi Hotel Thimphu Bhutan 2010-12-19)

2. Kapolongan a Nitayalan a 'Epoc Ilaloma' no kitakit: GNP ’edeng haop sa ko 10%

3. o mafana’ay to tilid a tamdaw haop saca ko 20%.

Ono Putan a GNP ’edeng 1400 a payso no Amirika. O sakakaay a mili’etanan i, mipa’aca i Indo to Nanomay Dinki.

O Sa’osi no Kacemahadan no Tamdaw(Human Development Index) itini i polong to 192 a kitakit o rayray no Putan i,i saka 134, itini to mahapinang ko katadanca no ’orip.

I 1992 miheca pasadak ko honti ci Cimiko Sinko Wangcuko to「Sa’osi no Kapolongan a Rihaday no Polong a Tamdaw」(Gross National Happiness,decdecay tilid:GNH; Kuwapin a sowal:國民幸福總值) a Sowal, o sapipalalan to sakacemahad no kitakit. Patatili’ han tono payso a pili’etan, ono faloco’ay a rihaday koni haenan no Putan a tamdaw, cowa ka sarocod sa o payso aca ko ‘epoc sanay a harateng.

 
Tokosan a kolong (Bos grunniens at Letdar on Annapurna Circuit)

I 2012 miheca saka 4 folad saka 2 romi’ad, mikaiki ko Linhoko to pakainiay o「Rihaday ato Lipahak:Misetek to Sowal tono Fa’elohay a Faco no Kicai」, o Putan a kitakit ko milengatay tona sowal ato demak, sa’osi han to i,「Rihaday ato Lipahak」tini i polong to 192 a kitakit o rayray no Putan ca ka paka’ala to ka’ayaway itiniay i saka 90 ko rayray.

Itini tona pinapina a mihecaan ma’ainainal to ko tamdaw a mi’aca tono roma a kitakit a dafong, ‘aloman to ko misatokayay, ca sato ka’edeng ko noniyah a mitayal a ma’orip, ‘aloman to ko awaay ko tayal a tamdaw, sakaleteng sato ko ’inolong no sifo a midipot to finawlan.

Itini i Putan irako ’Adicaw a fokeloh ato Taliso. O mitahepoan no kilakilangan a pala mahaop ko 72%, o makapahay a hana cinganganay itini i cowacowa a kitakit, o tadamanay a kilang ira ko Puti Kilan( Pippala;菩提樹),ira ko Calamay, ira ho ko Caleng. O misanga’an a dafong i,sahetoay o dafong to romi’ami’ad ato kakaenen, orasaka awaay ko tata’angay a misanga’ay to dafong a kofa.

 
Nanom ko sapisanga' to Dinki (Dreischluchtendamm hauptwall 2006)

O maomahay ato misakilangay ko ’alomanay, o 72% no tamdaw misaomahay. pakaenay to ‘a’adopen ato misakilangay. O misaomahay i,kinacecayay a mipanay, miketef to ariray, ato ’emi to cecay a miheca.

O nanom ko sapisang’ay to dinki (Ikiris a sowal:Hydro-power; Kuwaping a sowal:水力發電), o masanga’ay to dinki mahaop ko 72% nipaliwalan i Indo,o Putan sa i,ono palapalaan ko sapiparakat to maamaan a kinairaira no pala(kandaway a saparakat to maamaan a kinairaira no pala), cowa ka sikitang ato simal ko sapisanga’ to dinki.[9]

O pipalafangan ho roma a tata’angay a tayal no Putan, o ’orip no Putan a tamdaw, cowa ka pikihar to icowacowaay a kitakit, nikawrira, i 1974 miheca satapang a mihamham to palafangay, i Putan matafesiw ko 150 a L yokokaysya matayl to sapipasalam to lafang, ano ca’aca’ayay ka faker to ka’aloman no tayniay a lafang, nikawrira, o lafang i,o’edeng o mihaian no sifo a pisalamaan ko katayraan, tatolo ko tamdaw ano ca ikaka to tatolo, cecay a tamdaw nipasata to 200 no Amirika a payso to sapipa’ading to pala ato to’asan ho a punka.[10] [11]

O to’edaw no lalan ira ko 3000 km, o tokosay kolong(Bos grunniens;氂牛),o lopa, o ’efa ko sapicolo’.

O saikoray ira ko tilipi ato wanglu WIFI a kitakit ko Putan.

Kaitiraan (地理)

Itiraay i satimol no Aciya ko kaitiraan no Putan, O ila’eday no Congko ato Indo a kitakit, ilaloma’ay no karopaw ko aro’,i sakawaliay a ’apilis no Simalaya a tokos (ཧིམཱལཡ himālaya,喜馬拉雅山脈), isaka’etip madado’edo ato nikowanan no Indo a Sicin Sakowan (Latin a tilid:Sikkim;錫金邦), malala’ed ato Nipol; isakatimol madado’edo ato Monciyala Sakowan(Monciyala a sowal:পশ্চিম বঙ্গ;Ikiris a sowal:West Bengal)no Indo ato Asamu Sakowan(Asamu a sowal:অসম ; Ikiris a sowal:Assam).

O syuto ato satata’angay a tokai o Sinpo(Thimphu), itini i sowal no Congo, o「Cukoyi」hananay a mipangangan ko Putan,o kakeleng, o kangic sanay ko imi no nini a ngangan. Ora to「Putan」hananay i,o nanitiraay i telang a sowal no Indo「भोट-अन्त」 (Fan a sowal:संस्कृता वाक्;Ikiris a sowal:Sanskrit; Kuwaping a sowal:梵語)),o imi nira i, o「Salawacan no Tofan」sanay. Matiya o milingosay to o salawacan i katimol ko katenak no punka no Sicang hato sanay.  O finacadan no Putan nano tiraay no to’as a Sicang a tamdaw, o malecaday ko karengawan ato Sicang a Monpa finacadan ko to’as no Putan a tamdaw.

O pala i,nani ka’amis pasitimol sa a ma’apilis, ka’amis a kakarayan si’enaway, cocw ka citolas ko kaciso’eda ko tolos itini; isasifo’an a sa’owa’owacan dihekoay ko kakarayan; ikatimol i,o kidefetay a kilakilangan. O taporoporoan a dafdaf mado’etay a fa’edet ko kakarayan, o satimolan tono Aciya a etal. o kilakilangan matahepo ko 72% no kitakit, o sakakaay i satimolan a Aciya. O sa’akawangay a ’apocok no tokos i,itiraay i kalala’edan no Putan ato Congko a Kankopenson( Pining no Sicang:Kanggarbünsum; Kuwaping a sowal:岡嘎本孫峰), nani tongroh no riyar 7570 m.

Kasasilsil no Sakowan(行政區劃)

O polong no Putan sepatay ko kasasilsil no etal: Sa’etipay etal, sasifo’ay etal, satimolan rtal ato sawalian etal, i la’eno nonini i, mipecihan ho 20 a Cong. O tata’angay a takai i,o syuto Sinpo, Poro(Wili a sowal:sPa-ro / sPa-gro) ato Pokana(Wili a sowal: sPu-na-kha).

Tamdaw (人口)

O polong ira ko 831,920 tamdaw(2020 mihecaan a sa’osi)[12], o samatakaray itini i hekal ko tamdaw. O fainayan mahaop ko 53%, fafahiyan mahaop ko 47% ko tamdaw.

Toloay ko kasasiromaroma no finacadan no Putan:

1.Canglo Finacadan:I sakawaliay no Putan a Yuencumin;

2.Kolong Finacadan:I sa’etipay no Putan a maro’ a teloc no maforaway a Sicang a Finacadan.

3.Losamupo Finacadan anoca o Locang a tamdaw hananay a pangangan:o maforaway nani Nipol i 19 sici, o Nipol ko sowal.

Sowal (語言)

O Conke sowal ato Ikiris sowal kono sifoan a sowal, o Locang a tamdaw ono Nipol ko sowal. Tada kidefetay ko kalakiting no Conke sowal ato Sicang a sowal.

Pitooran(宗教)

O polong a tamdaw no Putan mitooray to Fociyaw(mipaypayay), o nitoro’an no kitakit a pitooran i o Cangcuwan Fociyaw(Sicang a tilid:བོད་བརྒྱུད་ནང་བསྟན།,Wili atilid:bod brgyud nang bstan; Monko a sowal:Төвөдийн Буддын шашин; Kuwaping a ssowal:藏傳佛教),o ikakay i,o Koci Kasacinowas(Sicang a tilid:བཀའ་བརྒྱུད་པ་,Pining no Sicang:Kagyu/Kagyupa; Kuwaping a sowak:噶舉派). Ira ho ko roma to 25% mitooray to Indo a pitooran. O sarakatay a Pipaypayan i 637 miheca a mapatireng. O Indo a pitooran itiraay i sakatimol no Putan, kasacinowas ira ko Sipo Cinowas(Fan a sowal:शैव पंथ, śaiva paṁtha; Ikiris asowal:Shaivism,Shaivam;Kuwaping a sowal:濕婆);ira ko Fansinu Cinowas(Vaisnava dharma; Ikiris a sowal:Vaishnavism; Kuwaping a sowal:毗濕奴派); ira ho ko Sakota Cinowas(Fan a sowal:शाक्तं,Śāktaṃ;Kuwaping a sowal:沙克達教,性力派).

I 2008 miheca a Kinpo Rikec no Kitaki,mihosyoway to paiteked a mitoor to pitooran, nikawrira,milalangay ko sifo to cowa ko Fociyaw(佛教) a pitooran patenak to sowal no Kawas,milalang a pacomod to cowa ko Fociyaw a patenakay to soal no Kawas a tamdaw, milalang a patireng to cowa kono Fociyaw a loma’, milalang to cowa kono Fociyaw a lisin.

Punka (文化)

O pitilidan, o paisingan sahetoay o cowa ka papaysoen. Ira ko pisa’icel a misetek no sifo to sowal, o kalotamdaw ano matayal, o mitiliday aka ca ka ciriko’ tono to’asan a riko’ ta ma’osaw ko Punka no to’as. O fainayan kaciriko’ to「Ko」(o tahiraay i tosol a cawing), o fafahiyan i,kaciriko’ to「Kira」(o kakaya’ay a cawing ato kohepicay a kiping); o maamaan to Nipatirengan do’edoen kono to’as a faco a mipatireng, o paisingang to, o kinko to, o pitilidan to ato loma’ to, o sapatireng a lalosidan ano o kilang to, ano amoto to, ano solafo to, todongen kono to’as a pinangan. Ano mahaenhaen ko pirikec no sifo i,awaay a ma’osaw kono tada no to’as a nipatirengan.

2004 miheca saka 12 folad saka 17 romi’ad, milekal ko sifo milalang to tamako i ’edef no Putan a kitakit, o matiniay a pi’edef a milalang to tamako o sarakatay ho i polong a kitakit, i laloma’ to, i papotal to cowa ka nga’ay a mitamako. O patiyamay no Putan tatiih a pa’aca to tamako, ano ira ko miihangay patefoc to 225 payso no Amirika (ma’edeng 7000 paso no Taywan) to kalokinacecay riyad, ano kinapinapina to a miihang i,maposiyaw ko paya no patiyamay, oni ko sakakeror no mitamakoay a tamdaw, ma’eden haop sa ko 1% ko tamdaw.[13] 

Milalang ho ko sifo a paiteked sa a miletek to kilang, mi’adop ato mi’ala to tadamaanay a fokeloh, taiih a micukaymas to soka.

Itira i 1980 miheca, mipatalahekal ko sifo to「rikec no kalalamod」, misetek to cecay ko lamod sanay a faco, nikawria, ano pakaynien i pinangan no to’as ato nano rikisi a wayway, itini i Putan iraay ho ko cecay a fainayan cikapi to pinapina a fafahiyan ano ca cecay a fainayan cikapi to pinapina a fafahiyan, o matiniay a kitakit ko Putan hananay, ano mihai ho kona tatosaay a tamdaw awaay to ko milalangay[14] to sakalalamodaw nangra.  

Tahapinangan a Tilid (參考文獻)

[1] Sanskrit. Ethnologue. 2008-11-03 [2008-11-03]. (原始內容存檔於2007-09-30) (英語).

[2] 在藏語中「ཆེན་པོ་」(chen po)的意思是「大」。「བོད་」(bod)則是該國的國號,與今「西藏」一詞的藏語詞彙相同。

[3] Chakravarti, Balaram. A Cultural History of Bhutan 1. Hilltop. 1979: 7 [2014-09-13]. (原始內容存檔於2020-09-29). Taylor, Isaac. Names and Their Histories; a Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. Gale Research Co. (Detroit), 1898. Accessed 24 September 2011.

[4] 初名總制院,是元朝統治中國時期設立的一個直屬中央政府管轄的國家機構,負責掌管全國佛教事宜並統轄吐蕃(今西藏)地區的軍政事務。

[5] 《中國文明史 元代》〈第一章 雙重體制的政治〉: 第3頁-第10頁.

[6] 由於清朝建立的過程存在幾個重要的時間點,有關清朝的起始時間,存在不同的說法。主要有1616年說(後金建立)、1636年說(正式定國號為大清並稱帝)、1644年說(清軍入關並遷都北京)[參 5]。

[7] 不丹國王自廢君主制. 環球網. [2008-03-24]. (原始內容存檔於2020-08-12) (中文)

.[8] 温家宝:中国愿同不丹建立正式外交关系早日划定两国边界. 國際在線. 2012年6月22日 [2012年6月21日]. (原始內容存檔於2017年6月12日) (中文(簡體)).

[9] Hydro-Electric Power Projects of Bhutan. 不丹新聞在線. 2005年5月5日 [2008年3月25日]. (原始內容存檔於2010年7月6日).

[10] Bhutan Tourism Policy (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),Ancient Bhutan Tours & Treks

[11] The way to bhutan (頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館),International Tours and Treks Pvt. Ltd., Bhutan.

[12] 存档副本. [2020-05-03]. (原始內容存檔於2020-12-01).

[13] CNN報導[失效連結]

[14] 馮侖. 不丹的幸福. 經理世界網. [2012-04-19]. (原始內容存檔於2012-04-15).

kakafitan i Papotal(外部連接)

  • (英文)不丹旅遊局網(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • (英文)Bhutan Portal(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)不丹政府網站
  • (英文)Department of Tourism, BHUTAN(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)不丹政府旅遊部網站
  • (英文)CIA_World_Factbook(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • (英文)開放式目錄計劃中和不丹相關的內容
  • (英文) 維基媒體的不丹地圖集
  • (中文)維客旅行上的不丹(頁面存檔備份,存於網際網路檔案館)
  • OpenStreetMap上有關不丹的地理資訊