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Belize(貝里斯)

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Pilisu 貝里斯

Takaray a sowal(概要):

Pilisu (Ikiris a sowal:Belize; Kuwaping a sowal:貝里斯)o malamicongacongay a Hontolasu a kitakit, itiraay itiraay i sakawalian no Sasifo’an no Amilika Karopaw, o siikeday a kitakit. Isakatimol ato isaka’etip mada’edo’edoay ato Kuwatimala, isakawali misa’ayaway to Kalepi riyar. Sato’edaw sanay ko faco nona kitakit, o kato’edaw i, 290 km, kakahad i, 110 km, itini i Sasifo’an a Amilika Karopaw i, o ‘edengan konini a kitakit ko caay ka pisi’ayaw to Rahidayay Riyar(Taypinyang).

O polong a kakahad no sera i,22.800㎢, o tamdaw i,408,487 ko tamdaw(2019 sa’osi).

Ona kitakit macacamol to masasiromaromaay a sowal ato punka, o tahapinangan to kadofah no rikisi.

Ono sifoan a sowal i,o Ikiris a sowal, nikawrira, ono winaan a sowal Koliol(Ikiris a sowal: Creole Language; Kaping a sowal:克里奧爾語) ko kalosowal to romi’ami’ad. O ninian to ko ira ko kalifatad a tamdaw mafana’ay a somowal to pinapina a sowal, o Sipanya a sowal ho kalasowal no tamtamdaw.

O pinengneng no ’alomanay i,pako Sasifo’an a Amilika Karopaw ato ilislisay no Korpi Riyar a kitakit ko Pilisu sanay, o mikapotay i Mapapolongay a Karpi(CARICOM;加勒比共同體), Latin-Amirika ato Korpi Kapolongan(CELAC) ato Sasifo’an a Amilika Karopaw a Kapolongan(Sipangya a sowal:Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana,Decdecan a tilid:SICA; Kuwaping a sowal:中美洲統合體). O kapot no Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep, orasaka, ci Ilicapid II (Ikiris a sowal:Elizabeth II ;Kaping a sowal:伊麗莎白二世) ko Sarawa’an ato Kakridan no Pilisu a kitakit.

Rikisi(歷史)

Sarakatay a macat ko Sipanya a tamdaw(西班牙人首先登陸)

Itiya ho i 1511 miheca, o sarakatay a macat tona pala a Yoropa a tamdaw o mikalicay to tamina a Sipanya tamdaw, ‘aloman ko macepetay no itinitiniay a maro’ o Maya a tamdaw malasapato’aya anoca malakoli.

 
Kahengangay-Kilang no Poracir(Caesalpinia-echinata)

1638 miheca, satapang a mafolaw a tayni ko Yoropa a tamdaw, nikawrira, i’ayaw no 1670 miheca awaay ko pakatafesiway to cecay a miheca a maro’ itini. Ona mafolaway a tayni a Yoropa a tamdaw sahetoay o misakilangay, nawhani, ira ko tadamaanay a kilang o Inki-kilang(blackwood;墨水樹) ato Kahengangay-Kilang no Poracir(brazilwood;巴西紅木) o salisanga’ to sacengel, matekes ko ’aca patayraen i Yoropa a pacakay. Ira ho ko Tayietawhuwasinmu(Swietenia macrophylla;大葉桃花心木)mala’afa’afas ko tamadaw a mi’aca, nawhani, tadamanga’ayay sapisaloma’ ato sapisang’ to dafong. Tona mihecahecaan adihay ko kokong no riyar a tatayni, ira ko ’aro sanay itini a Sipanya a tamdaw, ira ko malicoay no Intian a tamdaw.

Micongacongay to Ikiris a Hongtolasu(英屬宏都拉斯)

Itiya ho o Sipanya a Hontian Kitakit mihai to pikilang no Ikiris a tamdaw, nikawria, milalang to sapipatirengan to Micowat a Mikowan. To ikor i 1798 miheca, lalood sa to ko Ikiris ato Sipanya, oya maro’ay i saka’amisay a Pecih-Kanatal (Sipanya asowal:Península de Yucatán; Kaping a sowal:猶加敦半島) no Sifo’ay Amirika a Karopaw a tapang no sofitay no Sipanya ocoren ningra ko 32 a tamina a mi’afas patikol toya pala. Nani saka 9 folad saka 3 romi’ad tahira i saka 9 folad saka 10 romi’ad, mararid ko lalood i kihaw no Pilisu, saikoray to i, sawad han to no Sipanya koya mi’ecoan a pala, o「Battle of St. George's Caye」hananay a pangangan. Saka 9 folad saka 10 romi’ad o pasela’an no kitakit to sapikining tona「Battle of St. George's Caye」a lalood.

I kaleponan no 18sici, misatapang ko Ikiris a pakamaro’ itini a mikowan ton apala. 1840 miheca, laheci han to no Ikiris ko Pilisu malamicowatn a sakowan. 1862 miheca palaheci mipacomod malamikowanan no Honti no Ikiris mala「micongacongay a Hongtolasu」hananay a pangangan.

Mifalic to ngangan no kitakit(正名為貝里斯)

1964 miheca saka 1 folad milekal o Pikaikian Faco no kitakit,laheci sato ko pisiied a niyahpikowan, 1973 miheca, falic han to koya nipanganganan no Ikiris a「micongacongay a Hongtolasu」to「Pilisu」ha ngangan no kitakit.

Kaitiraan (地理位置)

Itiraay i sakawalian no Sasifo’an no Amilika Karopaw, o siikeday a kitakit. Isakatimol ato isaka’etip mada’edo’edoay ato Kuwatimala, isakawali misa’ayaway to lihaw no Hongtolasu no Kalepi riyar. Adhihay ko kanatanatal, ma’edef no tokos, sena’sena’an ato no Fa’etay a Kakarayan a kilakilangan(Tropical moist broadleaf forest;熱帶雨林).

O laleko no sera i,tosaay ko pecih o sakatimol pecih ato saka’amisay a pecih:katimolay a laleko no sera i, o lotolotokan no Maya, nani sakatimol no ka’etip pasi ka’amis no sakawali ko kasado’edo’edo nona lotok, o ’apocok nona cipas lotok o Kokoskomu(Ikiris a sowal:Coxcomb Peak;科克斯科姆峰)o ka’akawang nona ’apocok i,nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 1121.97m, o sakakaay ko ka’akawang tona kitakit; isaka’amis ato lislis no riyar a laleko no pala o masadasdasay, o lalen no ka’akawang i,nani tongroh no riyar ira ko 61m, sahetoay o swna’swna’an.

 
Fa’etay a Kakarayan a kilakilangan(Campo12Foto 2)

O sakakaay a ’alo ira ko Mopan ’alo(Sipanya a sowal:Río Mopán; Kaping a sowal:莫潘河) ato Pilisu ’alo(Ikiris a sowal:Belize River;Sipanya a sowal:Río Belice;Kaping a sowal:貝里斯河).

I sakatimol a laleko no sera i, o Fa’etay a Kakarayan a kilakilangan(Tropical moist broadleaf forest;熱帶雨林),o roma sato i,o Fa’etay a Kakarayan a rengorengosan(Tropical moist broadleaf Grassland;熱帶草原).

O ha’emin no miheca o kara’oradan ato kakedalan ko kasasiroma, 3~5 a folad o kakedalan, 6~11 o mado’etay a folad. O lalen a fa’edet i,17~25°C, o ’orad to mihecaan i,isaka’amis latek 1350mm, isakatimol i,latek 4575mm, o pitahepo no kilakilangan i,mahaop ko 70%. Ikacifreangan ato karafawfawan mafaliyosay to to mihecahecan.

Itini i 17 15 N, 88 45 W, noNotimolan Amilika ko Belize.Polong no sekalay i 22,966 sq km “saka 152 ko rayray no ngangan. O sekalay no sera i, 22,806 sq km, no nanom a sekalay i, 160 sq km,Polong i 353,858 ko tamdaw.

sera(土地):Masakilac ko sera o malo kakaomahen(農業) a sera 6.90%, Malo no kilakilangan(林業) a sera 60.60%, malo no roma to a sera 32.50%.

siyoto(首都):O Pilmopan(Belmopan,貝爾墨潘) ko Siyoto.katomirengan no kitakit a romi’ad(國家紀念日):Pihiratengan no kitakit a romi’ad i sakasiwa 10 a romi’ad.O Sawara’an no kitakit anini i ci Elizabeth II(伊莉莎白二世女王), patirengan a romi’ad i 1952 a miheca saka 2 folad saka 6 a romi’ad.

Sici (政治)

O Pilisu i,Pikaikian Faco a kitakit, o kapot no Tata'akay Ikiris a Lekatep. O tayal no sifo i,mido’edo’edoay tono Ikiris a

 
o Mama no kitakit(George Cadle Price)

a Faco (Ikiris a sowal:Westminster system; Kaping a sowal:西敏制)no sici, o misanga’ay to rikec no kitakit a Pikaikian ko sakakaay ko ’icel no sakowan,o pisawkitan i,o Ikiris-Amirika Faco a Rikec(Ikiris a sowal:common law)[1]ko pitili’an a misawkit. Ititni i Sifo’an-Amirika-Karopaw ’edeng o Pilisu ato fiyaw a kitakit Kostalika ko limadacay ko sici temenekay ko syakai.

Itini i Pilisu tosaay ko tata’angay a kasafelaw no sici: isifo’ay a pasikawili ko tayal a centang[2] o「Kapolongan no Finawlan a Centang」(People's United Party) ato isifo’ay a pasikawanan ko tayal a centang o「Finawlan ko Pi'arawan a Centang」(United Democratic Party).

Kasasilsil no sakowan(行政區劃)

’Enemay ko kasasilsil no sakowan:

# ’Amis Ikiris Kuwaping Syoto
1 Pilisu Etal Belize 貝里斯區 Belize City
2 Kayu Etal Cayo 卡優區 San Ignacio
3 Kolosar Etal Corozal 科羅薩爾鎮 Corozal Town
4 Citaw Etal Orange Walk   橘道區 Orange Walk Town
5 Stankoliko Etal Stann Creek 史坦克瑞克區 Dangriga
6 Torito Etal Toledo 托勒多區 Punta Gorda

Kacacofelan a Demak (外交)

Mapatirengay ko kacacofelan a Demak ato 94 a kitakit, ira ko kacacofel a demak ato Conghuwaminko, ato itiraay i Afrika a Saharawi-Arapiya Nikapolongan Kitakit(Sipanya a sowal:República Árabe Saharaui Democrática,SADR); Kaping a sowal:撒拉威阿拉伯民主共和國,通稱西撒哈拉), ato itiraay i Parkan-Pecih-Kanatal no Yoropa o( Arpaniya a sowal:Republika e Kosovës; Saywirwiya a sowal:Република Косово; Roman a tilid:Republika Kosovo; Kaping a sowal:科索沃共和國,簡稱科索沃).

I 1987 miheca saka 2 folad saka 6 folad patireng ato Congko to kacacofelan a demak, mapalasawad ko kacacofelan a demak ato Conhuwaminko(Taywan). Caho ka halafin mafalic ko mikowanany a tapang no Pilisu, i 1989 miheca saka 10 folad saka 11 romi’ad patatiko ho ko Pilisu a patireng to kacacofeln a demak ato Conhuwaminko(Taywan), mapalasawad ko kacacofeln a demak ato Conko.[3]

Kicai (經濟)

Nano to’asan o misakilangay ko ’orip no Pilisu a tamdaw, tona icilaay ho a mihecan o maomahay to ko ’alomanay ko tayal, mangaled ko misatefosay, misamami’ay, kokoya, panay, tamako, pawli, ato paka’enay to kolong. Ikakaay ko mifotingay. O misanga’ay to dafong i,o misataminaay, misanga’ay to kaka’enen, mililecay to keliw, dafong no loma’, tinci ato tamako.

 
Kahiceran no lafang(Turtle Inn bar and dining area)

Tili’en ko nipasadakan no sepay no Amirika to pakayniay to aniniay alekakawa no ha’emin no kitakit,o Pilisu i,itini i Sifo’an a Amirika Karopaw o sakakaay ko awaay ko katayalan a kitakit mahaop ko 9.4%, ila’enohay ho lalen no manikaway a tamdaw a kacitiwtiw mahaop ko 33.5%.

1999 miheca o cakat no GDP i,mahaop ko 6.4%, tahira to I 2000 miheca kacakat to mahaop ko 10.5%, nikawrira, i 2001 miheca makeron tayra i 3%, nawhani, o kicai no polon a kitakit masereray, ira ho faliyos sacaka nga’ay ko

‘epoc no liomah, pifoting ato pisalamaan no lafang.    

Pihapinangan a Tilid(參考文獻)

[1] 在《中文主題詞法》2005年版正式主題詞用「英國法系」亦稱普通法系(頁198),不用「海洋法系」。

[2] Oliver H. Woshinsky. Explaining Politics: Culture, Institutions, and Political Behavior. New York: Routledge, 2008. p. 146.

[3] 中国同伯利兹的关系. 中華人民共和國外交部.

Pikafitan i Papotal(外部連接)